**Vyankat Pawar**, Maharashtra Udayagiri Mahavidyalaya, Physics and Electronics, India

**Abstract:**The dielectric relaxation study of diethanolamine with triethanolamine binary mixture have been determined over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz, at 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30oC using time domain reflectometry (TDR) method for 11 concentrations of the system. The present work reveals molecular interaction between same multi-functional groups [−OH and –NH2] of the alkanolamines (diethanolamine and triethanolamine) using different models (Such as Debye model, Excess model, Kirkwood model and Bruggeman model). The dielectric parameters viz. static dielectric constant (0), dielectric constant at high frequency (∞) and relaxation time () have been obtained with Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution by the least squares fit method. The values of static dielectric constant increases up to their melting points and then it decreases with increasing temperatures. This behavior of the static dielectric constant indicates the change of phase from semi-solid to liquid state of the system. At the melting points, the values of relaxation time suddenly drop down.

1

**Julio S Espinoza Ortiz**, Universidade Federal de Goias, Departamento de Física, Brazil

**Roberto E Lagos**, IGCE Universidade Estadual Paulista, Física, Brazil

**Abstract:**Research on modeling the mechanical behavior of soft tissue has growing demand for applications on surgical simulations, pursuing in real time, precise and fast calculations of tissue mechanical deformations. For almost all biological soft tissue, the stress-strain curve exhibit a hysteresis loop showing a nonlinear relationship, meanwhile under different strain rates they are mechanically not very sensitive. Moreover, their hysteresis loop-area does not depend on the strain rate. Hysteresis, relaxation and creep are common features of viscoelastic mechanical behavior. As for most materials, their mechanical properties depend to a large extent on the environmental conditions, mainly the temperature and the type of loading regime applied to the material. The time dependence of a viscoelastic material could be better understood by considering it as composed by an elastic solid and a viscous fluid. Different types of mechanical devices can be constructed provided a particular configuration of elastic springs and dashpots. In this work we explore the possibility to obtain most of the soft tissue mechanical behavior by considering a Kelvin's device coupled to a set of {\it\,in parallel} Maxwell's devices. Then, the resulting model composed of a long series of modified Kelvin bodies must span a broad range of characteristic times resulting in a suitable model for soft tissue simulation. Soft tissue mechanical response under driving static and dynamic deformations on {\it\,2-Dim} system are considered, given the applied stress. We compute the strain deformations as a function of time. We obtain a set of coupled Volterra integral equations, solved via the extended trapezoidal rule scheme, and we use the Newton-Raphson method when solving the remaining coupled equations.

2

**jean-pierre magnot**, academie de clermont-ferrand, lycée jeane d'arc, France (Metropolitan)

**Abstract:**Using the procedure initiated in [J-P. Magnot, International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics 10(9). articleID 1350043 (2013)], we deform Lax-type equations though a scaling of the time parameter. This gives an equivalent (deformed) equation which is integrable in terms of power series of the scaling parameter. We then describe a regular Frölicher Lie group of symmetries of this deformed equation.

3

**Marco Zoli**, University of Camerino, School of Science and Technology, Italy

**Abstract:**Many experiments have demonstrated that DNA exhibits sequence-dependent bending and torsional flexibility which may have biological relevance in the DNA-protein interplay. Such properties have been investigated by several experimental methods including gel electrophoresis, crystallography and, above all, DNA cyclization which permits to test the circularization rates of DNA sequences in the presence of ligase enzymes. From a theoretical viewpoint, cyclization rates can been analyzed via computation of the J-factors which are essentially given by the ratio of the partition functions of circular and linear structures. This program is carried out in the present work by means of the previously developed path integral method for DNA [1-3]. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous molecules are studied to detect the effects of the sequence specificities on the cyclization probabilities. The latter are also evaluated as a function of the sequence length. [1] M. Zoli, Journal of Theoretical Biology Vol. 354, 95-104 (2014). [2] M. Zoli, Soft Matter Vol. 10, 4304-4311 (2014). [3] M. Zoli, The Journal of Chemical Physics Vol. 141, 174112 (2014).

4

**Sy-Sang Liaw**, National Chung Hsing University, Physics, Taiwan

**Abstract:**There exist a few methods for generating time series of a given fractal dimension. But none of them produces series sequentially. For example, the Random Midpoint Displacement method begins with the two end points of the intended series and feeds in points in between repeatedly. The spectral method prescribes a set of points satisfying a power law and makes a Fourier Transform to obtain the intended fractal series. Sequentially generating a fractal series of dimension 1.5 is easy, simply by simulating a one-dimension random walk step by step. It is also straightforward to generate a series of random numbers one by one to yield a fractal series of dimension 2.0. Unfortunately, fractal time series of a given dimension other than 1.5 and 2.0 have never being generated in a sequential manner. Real time series are recorded one data at a time, that is, sequentially. Many of them are fractals, and their dimensions could be 1.5, 2.0, or others, or even scale-dependent. How do these real systems generate its sequential data with a prescribed fractal dimension? In this report, we present a multi-scale N-step algorithm for generating fractal sequences sequentially. The algorithm predefines the probability, which is obtained in advance from random sequences we generated with a given fractal dimension, for upward change at any time as a function of the N changes in previous N steps. Sequences generated from this N-step algorithm have a monofractal dimension up to certain time scale but change into a random-walk sequence with fractal dimension 1.5 at larger scales. We find that by applying the probability function at several time scales simultaneously each with an appropriate weight on determining the change of the sequence at any time step, we are able to generate monofractal sequences of quite a long length useful for any practical purpose.

5

**Marjan Uddin**, University of engineering and technology Peshawar, Department of Basic Sciences, Pakistan

**Abstract:**In this work the method of approximate particular solutions using compactly supported kernels is investigated. In the work of [1] the global RBFs are used in the solution process, and the ill-conditioning of the resultant matrix is observed for solving large-scaled problems. We extended the work of [1] for compactly supported kernels, so that we can solve large-scaled problems in science and engineering. The numerical scheme of the present method of approximate particular solutions is simple to implement and very accurate. Three benchmark problems are solved by the present numerical scheme and the results are compared to other methods in the literature. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... [1] C. S. Chen, C. M. Fan, P. H. Wen. The Method of Approximate Particular Solutions for Solving Certain Partial Differential Equations, Published online 25 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/num.20631.

6

**Tomasz Blachowicz**, Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics - Center for Science and Education, Poland

**Andrea Ehrmann**, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Germany

**Abstract:**Magnetic nano-wire systems are, as well as other patterned magnetic structures, of special interest for novel applications, such as magnetic storage media [1]. In these systems, the coupling between neighboring magnetic units is most important for the magnetization reversal process of the complete system, leading to a variety of magnetization reversal mechanisms. While former simulations concentrated on iron nano-wires with different dimensions [2] and coupling mechanisms [3], this article examines the influence of the magnetic material on hysteresis loop shape, coercive field, and magnetization reversal modes. While nickel (Ni) nano-wire systems do not show special features which have not been found in simulations based on iron (Fe) nano-wires, systems consisting of cobalt (Co) nano-wires show hysteresis loops with several longitudinal steps and transverse peaks, correlated to a rich spectrum of magnetization reversal mechanisms. We show that changing the material parameters while the system geometry stays identical can lead to completely different hysteresis loops and reversal modes. Thus, especially for finding magnetic nano-systems which can be used as quaternary or even higher-order storage devices, it is very sensible to test several materials for the planned systems. Apparently, new materials may lead to novel and unexpected behavior – and can thus result in novel functionalities. [1] T. Blachowicz, A. Ehrmann: Fourfold nanosystems for quaternary storage devices, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 073911 (2011) [2] T. Blachowicz, A. Ehrmann, P. Steblinski, J. Palka: Directional-dependent coercivities and magnetization reversal mechanisms in fourfold ferromagnetic systems of varying sizes, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013901 (2013) [3] T. Blachowicz and A. Ehrmann: Micromagnetic simulations of anisotropies in coupled and uncoupled ferromagnetic nano-wire systems, Sci World J 2013, 472597 (2013)

7

**Andrea Ehrmann**, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Germany

**Tomasz Blachowicz**, Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics - Center for Science and Education, Poland

**Hafed Zghidi**, Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Poland

**Abstract:**One of the techniques which can be used to quantitatively evaluate images statistically is the so-called random-walk approach, resulting in the calculation of the Hurst exponent, which is a measure of the complexity of the picture under examination. Especially long, fine elements in the image, such as fibers, influence the Hurst exponent significantly in comparison to a completely single-color picture. Thus, determination of the Hurst exponent has been suggested as new method to measure the hairiness of yarns [1] or knitted fabrics [2,3]. This is of special importance due to the fact that the existing hairiness measurement instruments are based on different measurement principles which are not necessarily comparable. While the principal usability of this method for hairiness detection has been shown in former projects, the absolute value of the calculated Hurst exponents is significantly dependent on the technique to take the photographic image of a sample, to transfer it into a monochrome picture, and on possible image processing steps. This article gives an overview of the influence of camera resolutions, edge detection filters, possible definitions of the limit color between black and white for the monochrome image, etc. It shows how these parameters should be chosen in case of typical textile samples and correlates the challenges of this novel method with well-known problems of common techniques to measure yarn and fabric hairiness. [1] T. Blachowicz, S. Aumann, B. Pruß, P. Reiners, A. Ehrmann, M. O. Weber, T. Weide: Optical determination of yarn hairiness using statistical methods, Proceedings of Aachen-Dresden International Textile Conference, Dresden / Germany, November 27-28, 2014 [2] T. Blachowicz, A. Ehrmann, M. Zieliński, M. O. Weber: Quantitative estimation of textile structural complexity using random walking approach, submitted [3] T. Blachowicz, A. Ehrmann, K. Domino, M. O. Weber: Examination of washing relaxation of knitted fabrics by random walking approach, submitted

8

**Derek Prates**, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valeys, Institute for Science, Engineering and Tecnology, Brazil

**Caio Jardim**, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, ICET, Brazil

**Letícia Ferreira**, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valeys, Institute for Science, Engineering and Tecnology, Brazil

**Jaqueline Silva**, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valeys, Institute for Science, Engineering and Tecnology, Brazil

**Abstract:**Mathematical models can be widely found in the literature for describing and analyzing epidemics. The models that use differential equations to represent mathematically such description are especially sensible to parameters involved in the modelling. In this work, an already developed model, called SIR, is analyzed when applied to a scenario of a dengue fever epidemic. Such choice is powered by the existence of useful tools presented by a variation of this original model, which allow an inclusion of different aspects of the dengue fever disease, as its seasonal characteristics, the presence of more than one strain of the vector and of the biological factor of cross-immunity. The analysis and results interpretation are performed through numerical solutions of the model in question, and a special attention is given to the different solutions generated by the use of different values for the parameters present in this model. Slight variations are performed either dynamically or statically in those parameters, mimicking hypothesized changes in the biological scenario of this simulation and providing a source of evaluation of how those changes would affect the outcomes of the epidemic in a population.

9

**Alfred Toms**, University of Rome, Department of Physics, Italy

**Jack Taylor**, University of Rome, Department of Physics, Italy

**Abstract:**Test abstract

10

**M. M. Aish**, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt , Physics, Egypt

**Abstract:**The heterogeneity of plastic deformation of nickel single crystals in view of hierarchy of structural elements is investigated. The dependence of the structural elements forming the domain of deformation, on orientation of an axis of compression of single crystals is established. The deformation in domains and the structural elements is investigated.

11

**Felipe Loureiro**, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei, Department of Thermal and Fluid Sciences, Brazil

**Jonathan Silva**, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, Postgraduate Program in Computational Modeling, Brazil

**Webe Mansur**, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,COPPE/UFRJ,RJ,Brazil, Department of Civil Engineering, Brazil

**Abstract:**Green's function based methodologies for elastodynamics in both time and frequency domains, which can be either numerical or analytical, appear in many branches of physics and engineering. Thus, the development of exact expressions for Green's functions is of great importance. Unfortunately, such expressions are known only for relatively few kinds of geometry, medium and boundary conditions. In this way, due to the difficulty in finding exact Green's functions, specially in the time domain, the present paper presents a solution of the transient elastodynamic equations by a time-stepping technique based on the Explicit Green's Approach method written in terms of the Green's and Step response functions, both being computed numerically by the finite element method. The major feature is the computation of these functions separately by the central difference time integration scheme and locally owing to the principle of causality. More precisely, Green's functions are computed only at $t=\Delta t$ adopting two time substeps while Step response functions are computed directly without substeps. The proposed time-stepping method shows to be quite accurate with distinct numerical properties not presented in the standard central difference scheme as addressed in the numerical example.

12

**Arijit Chowdhury**, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, Innovation Lab, India

**Tapas Chakravarty**, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd., Innovation Lab, India

**Tanushree Banerjee**, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, Innovation Lab, India

**P Balamuralidhar**, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd, Innovation Lab, India

**Abstract:**The categorization of driving styles, particularly in terms of aggressiveness and skill is an emerging area of interest under the broader theme of intelligent transportation. There are two possible discriminatory techniques that can be applied for such categorization; a micro-scale (event based) model and a macro-scale (aggregate) model. It is believed that an aggregate model will reveal many interesting aspects of human-machine interaction; for example, we may be able to understand the propensities of individuals to carry out a given task over longer periods of time. A useful driver model may include the adaptive capability of the human driver, aggregated as the individual propensity to control speed/ acceleration. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying smartphone based application used for data collection by a group of drivers. Data is primarily being collected from GPS measurements including position & speed on a second-by-second basis, for a number of trips over a two months period. Analysing the data set, aggregate models for individual drivers were created and their natural aggressiveness were deduced. In this paper, we present the initial results for 12 drivers. It is shown that the higher order moments of the acceleration profile is an important parameter and identifier of journey quality. It is also observed that the Kurtosis of the acceleration profiles stores major information about the driving styles. Such an observation leads to two different ranking systems based on acceleration data. Such driving behaviour models can be integrated with vehicle and road model and used to generate behavioural model for real traffic scenario.

13

**Lok Lewyanvoon**, The Citadel, School of Science and Mathematics, United States

**Abstract:**The method of invariant is used to derive effective Hamiltonians in the presence of strain and external fields for phosphorene. All the unknown parameters up to the appropriate order have been identified. The zero-field band structure is confirmed to be quadratic in the wave vector. The results for phosphorene are compared to graphene and silicene. In particular, we found that the band energies change quadratically with a perpendicular electric field but linearly with an external perpendicular magnetic field, whereas both behaviours are linear for silicene. The band structure and deformation potential parameters have been determined by fitting to density-functional theory calculations. Peculiarities related to the structural anisotropy of phosphorene are pointed out.

14

**Won-Kwang Park**, Kookmin University, Mathematics, Korea, Republic of

**Abstract:**MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) is a famous non-iterative detection algorithm in inverse scattering problems. If one knows the applied frequency, very accurate locations of small perfectly conducting cracks can be detected vis MUSIC. Unfortunately, when the applied frequency is unknown, inaccurate locations are identified via MUSIC with wrong frequency data. This fact has been confirmed via various results of numerical simulations; however, the reason behind this inaccurate identification has not been theoretically investigated. Motivated this fact, we identify the structure of MUSIC-type imaging functional with an unknown frequency by establishing a relationship with Bessel functions of order zero of the first kind. Various numerical experiments are performed, to support this analysis of the imaging functional.

15

**Leôncio Diógenes T. Câmara**, Polytechnic Institute of State University of Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ-UERJ), Mechanical Engineering and Energy, DEMEC, Brazil

**Abstract:**The solvent-gradient simulated moving bed process (SG-SMB) is the new tendency in the performance improvement if compared to the traditional isocratic solvent conditions. In such SG-SMB separation process the modulation of the solvent strength leads to significant increase in the purities and productivity followed by reduction in the solvent consumption. A stepwise modeling approach was utilized in the representation of the interconnected chromatographic columns of the system combined with lumped mass transfer models between the solid and liquid phase. The influence of the solvent modifier was considered applying the Abel model which takes into account the effect of modifier volume fraction over the partition coefficient. The modeling and simulations were carried out and compared to the experimental SG-SMB separation of the amino acids phenylalanine and tryptophan. A lumped mass transfer kinetic model was applied for both the modifier (ethanol) as well as the solutes. The simulation results showed that such simple and global mass transfer models are enough to represent all the mass transfer effect between the solid adsorbent and the liquid phase. The separation performance can be improved reducing the interaction or the mass transfer kinetic effect between the solid adsorbent phase and the modifier. The simulations showed great agreement fitting the experimental data of the amino acids concentrations both at the extract as well as at the raffinate.

16

**Milan Zukovic**, P.J. Safarik University in Kosice, Institute of Physics, Slovakia (Slovak Republic)

**Dionissios Hristopulos**, Technical University of Crete, School of Mineral Resources Engineering, Greece

**Abstract:**We introduce a novel spatial prediction method inspired from statistical physics for efficient estimation of missing data with general non-Gaussian distributions on partially sampled Cartesian grids. The prediction model is based on a classical XY (also called planar rotator) spin model, which is modified in order to allow an appropriate one-to-one transformation between the data and spin values and which displays relevant short-range correlations at low temperatures. The spatial correlations present in the data are captured in terms of nearest-neighbor interactions between the spin variables. The only parameter of the present model is the reduced temperature, which is estimated from the sample-based correlations. Having inferred the temperature, conditional Monte Carlo simulations honoring the sample values are performed on the entire lattice to bring the system into thermal equilibrium and subsequently collect prediction statistics. Owing to the fact that the model does not show undesirable critical slowing down, the relaxation process is rather fast and, furthermore, the short-range nature of the interactions allows vectorization of the algorithm. Consequently, the proposed method achieves almost linear scaling with system size, thus being much more efficient than the conventional geostatistical approaches and applicable to huge datasets, such as satellite and radar images.

17

**pierre gaillard**, Universié de Bourgogne, Mathématiques, France

**Abstract:**The solutions to the one dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) can be written as a product of an exponential depending on t by a quotient of two polynomials of degree N(N+1) in x and t. These solutions depend on 2N-2 parameters : when all these parameters are equal to 0, we obtain the famous Peregrine breathers which we call P_{N} breathers. Between all quasi-rational solutions of the rank N fixed by the condition that its absolute value tends to 1 at infinity and its highest maximum is located at the point ( x=0,t=0), the P_{N} breather is distinguished by the fact that P_{N}(0,0) = 2N+1. \\ We construct Peregrine breathers of the rank N explicitly for N less than 11. We give figures of these P_{N} breathers in the (x;t) plane; plots of the solutions P_{N}(0;t), P_{N}(x;0), never given for 6

18

**Vladimir Kahsurnikov**, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Physics of the Solid State and Nanosystems, Russia

**Anastasiia Maksimova**, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Physics of the Solid State and Nanosystems, Russian Federation

**Igor Rudnev**, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Physics of the Solid State and Nanosystems, Russia

**Abstract:**The magnetization of layered high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) with ferromagnetic nanorods as bulk pinning centers is studied in the 2D model of layered HTSC by using Monte Carlo method. Magnetic part of the interaction energy between a ferromagnetic cylinder of arbitrary radius and fixed magnetization and an Abrikosov vortex was calculated in London approximation. The periodic and nonperiodic lattices of magnetic defects were considered. The vortex configurations arising during magnetization were obtained. The results of calculations were compared with the results for extended nonmagnetic defects.

19

**Vladimir Kahsurnikov**, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Physics of the Solid State and Nanosystems, Russia

**Andrey Krasavin**, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Physical and Technical Problems of Metrology, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The generalized quantum Monte Carlo algorithm was used to obtain one-particle excitation spectrum and electron density of states for two-dimensional FeAs-clusters modeling iron-based superconductors within the limits of the full two-orbital model. The calculations were performed for clusters with sizes up to 10×10 FeAs-cells. The excitation spectra were reconstructed from Matsubara Green's function. The spectral density of states and the total density of states near the Fermi level were obtained. The data are in accordance with known experimental results. The influence of the cluster size, temperature, and the interaction strength on the density of states was analyzed.

20

**Oskar Sultanov**, Institute of Mathematics with Computing Center, Department of Differential Equations, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**Autoresonance is a phenomenon of considerable growth of the energy of forced nonlinear oscillations initiated by a small pumping. The influence of random perturbations on a capture into autoresonance is analyzed. We consider a system of two first-order differential equations describing the initial stage of a capture into autoresonance. Of special interest are solutions with unboundedly growing energy in time at infinity. Such solutions are associated with a resonance phenomenon. In applications, it is assumed that only stable solutions correspond to real physical processes. By the reason of the nonlinearity of the considered mathematical model the explicit formulas for the solutions can not be obtained. However, it is possible to construct an asymptotic expansion for some particular solutions. Stability of such type solutions under white noise is discussed.

21

**Aly Seadawy**, Faculty of science, Taibah University, Mathematics, Saudi Arabia

**Abstract:**Solitary waves solutions are generated by deriving the nonlinear higher order of extended KdV equations for the free surface displacement. The problem formulations of models for internal solitary waves in a stratified shear flow with a free surface are presented. All coefficients of the nonlinear higher order extended KdV equation are expressed in terms of integrals of the modal function for the linear long-wave theory. The electric field potential and the fluid pressure in form traveling wave solutions of the extended KdV equation are obtained. The stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making the graphs of the exact solutions are discussed and analyzed.

22

**Ana Milena Nemocon**, University Nacional de Colombia, Física, Colombia

**Abstract:**In contrast to other geophysical prospecting techniques, electroseismic is able to discriminate between different fluids such as water and hydrocarbons. In this technique, a mechanical wave is produced from an electromagnetic pulse applied on the earth sur- face, when it passes through the material acts differently on the adsorbed layer (Stern layer) and double layer induced in the fluid to saturate the soil (diffused layer). As a consequence, a relative displacement (solid-fluid) is produced and then, a seismic wave response can be detected using geophones. The equations governing the electroseismic effect combine Maxwell’s electrodynamics and Biot’s wave propagation in porous media, and are known as equations of Pride. In this work, we explore whether a finite differ- ence scheme in the natural domain of the problem, frequency, attain reproduce this phenomenon. The electromagnetic source is given by a Ricker wavelet with a central frequency equal to 20Hz. The numerical method consists in transforming to frequency the input pulse, discretize finite difference equations of Pride to solve with this scheme the answer to input pulse for each frequency, combine and translate the results into the time domain, and apply this to each depth of study. The scheme sheds acceleration data that reproduce the appearance of seismic waves induced by electroseismic effect on the interface of several distinct electrokinetic and poroelastic parameters of the underground, with velocities of the order of those expected for the medium. Meanwhile, the perturbation induced by the vertical propagation of the electromagnetic wave signal is attenuated, as expected, respect to characteristics of the soil. This work is a first step in Colombia in order to find numerical schemes that can reproduce this phenomenon correctly.

23

**Grigori Chapiro**, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Mathematics, Brazil

**Abstract:**The paper is motivated by a model for the injection of air into a porous medium that contains a solid fuel, taking thermal losses into account [1]. This model was simplified in [2] by disregarding thermal losses and further studied using the singular perturbation technique. In [3] the model was further simplified and all wave sequences for the Riemann problem solution were obtained. Additionally, rigorous proof of the existence of the traveling wave solution was presented. The stability of such solutions was studied in [4]. Taking thermal losses into account is important from a physical point of view because they play an important role in laboratory experiments. In this work the first step in this direction is made. The model investigated in [3,4] is modified by including the thermal losses term, making it more physically realistic. In order to prove the existence of the traveling wave solution, we disregard diffusion effects and the dependence of gas density on temperature. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model. [1] I.Y. Akkutlu and Y.C. Yortsos, The dynamics of in-situ combustion fronts in porous media, J. of Combustion and Flame, 134, pp. 229-247, 2003. [2] G. Chapiro, A. A. Mailybaev, A.J. Souza, D. Marchesin, and J. Bruining, Asymptotic approximation of long-time solution for low-temperature filtration combustion, Comput. Geosciences, 16, pp. 799-808, 2012. [3] G. Chapiro, D. Marchesin and S. Schecter, Combustion waves and Riemann solution in light porous foam, J. of Hyperbolic Differential Equations, v. 11, p. 295-328, 2014. [4] G. Chapiro, L. Furtado, D. Marchesin and S. Schecter, Stability of Interacting Traveling Waves in Reaction-Convection-Diffusion Systems, Accepted in Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2015.

24

**Jaykov Foukzon**, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel , math, Israel

**Abstract:**Analytical non-perturbative study of the three-dimensional nonlinear stochastic partial differential equation with additive thermal noise, analogous to that proposed by V.N. Nikolaevskii [1]-[5]to describe longitudinal seismic waves, is presented. The equation has a threshold of short-wave instability and symmetry, providing long wave dynamics. New mechanism of quantum chaos generating in nonlinear dynamical systems with infinite number of degrees of freedom is proposed. The hypothesis is said, that physical turbulence could be identified with quantum chaos of considered type. It is shown that the additive thermal noise destabilizes dramatically the ground state of the Nikolaevskii system thus causing it to make a direct transition from a spatially uniform to a turbulent state.

25

**Viacheslav Trukhin**, Far Eastern Federal University, Department of theoretical and experimental phisics, Russia

**Abstract:**In our work, we present a program Taufit that designed for processing of the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). We produce comparative analysis of the data obtained with other common processing programs PALS-spectra (LT, PALS-fit). Our method is based on the processing of experimental PALS-spectrum by fitting the simulated spectrum of definitely number of exponent to the experimental spectrum by fitting (convolution). As a result, we obtain the important parameters PALS-spectra (intensity, lifetime exponents, annihilation coefficients). Note that due to that used in the model method, the model spectrum obtained with the experimental spectrum (conformity in ranges 97-99%, which is more accurate among the methods of analysis time spectra). The program was written at the Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok.

26

**Hyun-Min Kim**, Pusan National University, Department of Mathematics, Korea, South

**Abstract:**The two matrix equations $F(X) = X^{n} + M(B + X^{-1})^{-1}M^{*} - A = 0$ and $G(X) = X^{p} + A^{*}XA - Q = 0$ are studied. Based on the fixed-point theory, the existence and uniqueness of the Hermitian positive definite solution of $F(X)$ are proved. Some elegant estimates of the positive definite solutions of $G(X)$ are obtained. Three iterative methods for computing the positive definite solution of equation $G(X)$ are proposed.

27

**Lydie Mpinganzima**, University of Rwanda, Applied Mathematics, Rwanda

**Abstract:**The Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation appears in various applications and is severely ill-posed. For solving the problem, we present a method that consists of minimizing an energy-like error functional. For this, we first introduce an artificial boundary in the interior of the domain. This addition of the interior boundary allows us to derive a bilinear form that gives us a proper framework for the formulation of the problem as an optimization problem. Numerical results that confirm the convergence of the proposed method are also presented.

28

**Maxim V. Shamolin**, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Mechanics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**This activity is a survey of integrable cases in dynamics of a rigid body under the action of a nonconservative force field. We review both new results and results obtained earlier. Problems examined are described by dynamical systems with so-called variable dissipation with zero mean. The problem of the search for complete sets of transcendental first integrals of systems with dissipation is quite actual; a large number of works are devoted to it. We introduce a new class of dynamical systems that have a periodic coordinate. Due to the existence of a nontrivial symmetry groups of such systems, we can prove that these systems possess variable dissipation with zero mean, which means that on the average for a period with respect to the periodic coordinate, the dissipation in the system is equal to zero, although in various domains of the phase space, either the energy pumping or dissipation can occur. Based on facts obtained, we analyze dynamical systems that appear in dynamics of a rigid body and obtain a series of new cases of complete integrability of the equations of motion in transcendental functions that can be expresses through a finite combination of elementary functions. As exhibits we research dynamical equations of motion arising in studying the plane and spatial dynamics of a rigid body interacting with a medium and also a possible generalization of the obtained methods for studying to general systems arising in qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations, in theory of dynamical systems, and also in oscillation theory.

29

**Jaykov Foukzon**, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel , math, Israel

**Abstract:**Exact quasi-classical asymptotic beyondWKB-theory and beyondMaslov canonical operatorto theColombeau solutions of the n-dimensional Schrodinger equationis presented. Quantum jumps nature is considered successfully. We pointed out that an explanation ofquantum jumps can be found to result from Colombeausolutions of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates. http://wireilla.com/physics/ijrap/current2014.html

30

**Ana Milena Nemocon**, University Nacional de Colombia, Física, Colombia

**Abstract:**In contrast to other geophysical prospecting techniques, electroseismic is able to discriminate between different fluids such as water and hydrocarbons. In this technique, a mechanical wave is produced from an electromagnetic pulse applied on the earth surface, when it passes through the material acts differently on the adsorbed layer (Stern layer) and double layer induced in the fluid to saturate the soil (diffused layer). As a consequence, a relative displacement (solid-fluid) is produced and then, a seismic wave response can be detected using geophones. The equations governing the electroseismic effect combine Maxwell’s electrodynamics and Biot’s wave propagation in porous media, and are known as equations of Pride. In this work, we explore whether a finite difference scheme in the natural domain of the problem, frequency, attain reproduce this phenomenon. The electromagnetic source is given by a Ricker wavelet with a central frequency equal to 20Hz. The numerical method consists in transforming to frequency the input pulse, discretize finite difference equations of Pride to solve with this scheme the answer to input pulse for each frequency, combine and translate the results into the time domain, and apply this to each depth of study. The scheme sheds acceleration data that reproduce the appearance of seismic waves induced by electroseismic effect on the interface of several distinct electrokinetic and poroelastic parameters of the underground, with velocities of the order of those expected for the medium. Meanwhile, the perturbation induced by the vertical propagation of the electromagnetic wave signal is attenuated, as expected, respect to characteristics of the soil. This work is a first step in Colombia in order to find numerical schemes that can reproduce this phenomenon correctly.

31

**Marcin Lawnik**, Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Mathematics, Poland

**Abstract:**The analysis of the chaotic maps, enabling the derivation of numbers from given statistical distributions was presented . The analyzed chaotic maps are in the form x_{k+1}=F^{-1}(U(F(x_k))), where F is the cumulative distribution function, U is the skew tent map and F^{-1} is the inverse function of F [1]. The analysis was presented on the example of chaotic map with the standard normal distribution in view of his computational efficiency and accuracy. On the grounds of the conducted analysis, it should be indicated that the method not always allows to generate the values from the given distribution. [1] D. Lai, G. Chen: Generating Different Statistical Distributions by the Chaotic Skew Tent Map. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 10(6):1509–1512, 2000.

32

**Dean Teneng**, University of Tartu, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Estonia

**Abstract:**We study double barrier exit probabilities for risk processes with spectrally positive Levy perturbations. We derive Pollaczek-Hinchin type formulas using scale functions and obtain analytical results amenable to implementation for the case of exponentially distributed claim size distributions. Approximations for heavy-tailed claim size distributions are analogously obtained.

33

**Ruy Freitas Reis**, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Computational Modeling, Brazil

**Felipe Loureiro**, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei, Department of Thermal and Fluid Sciences, Brazil

**Marcelo Lobosco**, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Computer Science , Brazil

**Abstract:**Cancer is the second biggest cause of death in the world so treatments have been developed trying to work around this world health problem. Hyperthermia is not a new technique, but its use in cancer treatment is at an early stage of development. This treatment is based on overheat the target area to a threshold temperature that causes cell necrosis and apoptosis. To simulate this phenomenon, a three-dimensional porous medium model applied to a under skin cancer treatment using magnetic nanoparticles was adopted. This study presents a sensibility analysis of the model parameters such as the porosity and blood velocity. To ensure a second-order solution approach a 7-points centered finite difference method at space discretization and a predictor-corrector method to time evolution were employed. Due to the massive computations required to find the solution of a three-dimensional model, this paper also presents an attempt to improve performance using OpenMP, a parallel programming API.

34

**Irene Paola De Padova**, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Italy

**Abstract:**Multilayer silicene [1-5], the silicon equivalent of multilayer graphene, was produced in ultra high vacuum (UHV) on silver (111) surfaces. These films grow in consecutive flat terraces, after the initial formation of the 3×3 reconstructed first silicene monolayer, which is in a 4×4 coincidence super cell with respect to the silver (111) unit cell. All terraces have a honeycomb √3×√3R(30°) surface symmetry, with respect to 1×1 silicene, as detected in Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and Low Energy Electron Diffraction patterns (LEED). The √3×√3R(30°) symmetry was first observed by Wu’s group [6, 7]. They attributed this structure to the first and/or bilayer silicene, although it arises from second, third and all upper silicene layers [1-5]. Currently there is a scientific debate on the possibility that the multilayer silicene is indeed thin film of bulk-like silicon [8-10]. Thick epitaxial multilayer silicene films were obtained either on Ag(111) 5 or √3×√3R(30°)-Ag/Si(111)-7×7 and studied by LEED, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity, Fourier transform infrared as well as Raman spectroscopy. The temperature for both substrates during the silicon growth, strongly influences the nature of these films, by passing amorphous, multilayer silicene and bulk Si(111). These results are of crucial interest for applying silicene in the well-established silicon based nowadays-widespread electronics, taking into account that the first FET single layer silicene was successfully realized [11]. [1] P. De Padova et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163106 (2013). [2] P. De Padova et al., J. Phys. : Condens. Matter, Fast Track Commun. 25, 382202 (2013). [3] P. Vogt et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 021602-1-5 (2014). [4] E. Salomon et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 7, 185003 (2014). [5] P. De Padova et al., 2D Materials 1, 021003 (2014). [6] B. Feng et al., Nano Lett. 11, 3507 (2012). [7] L. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 056804-1-5 (2012). [8] T. Shirai et al. Phys. Rev. B 89, 2414031- 2414035 (R) (2014). [9] J. Chen et al., Arxiv 1405.7534. [10] J. Mannix et al., ACS Nano, 8, 7538 (2014). [11] L. Tao et al.,Nat. Nanotech. DOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2014.325.

35

**Antonino Amoddeo**, Università degli Studi 'Mediterranea', DICEAM, Italy

**Abstract:**Cancer cells oxygenation from surrounding healthy tissue influences the tumour growth in the avascular phase. The effects induced by oxygen on cancer cells dynamics during their interaction with the urokinase plasminogen activator system, are simulated mimicking different biological conditions of the early stage of human tumour proliferation, and under hypoxic conditions, using oxygen supply parameters determined from in vivo experiments. The system of six coupled partial differential equations, arising from the problem modeling, are solved over a one-dimensional domain implementing a moving mesh numerical technique, using the finite element method. Our preliminary computations show that, oxygen concentration at hypoxic conditions cause cancer cells to build inhomogeneous proliferation pattern, similarly to what happens in absence of oxygen, but with a faster invading front.

36

**yehuda roth**, Oranim College, science, Israel

**Abstract:**Coherence and interaction are important concepts in physics. While interaction describes a relations between individual objects such as forces acting between distinguishable particles, coherent objects exists only in purpose to describe a single object. For example each component of a vector provides us with only partial information. The whole picture is reviled only when the components are coherently related to their generating vector. Another example is singlet of two spin $\frac{1}{2}$- particles. The true nature of these two coherent particles is described by a spin-less single particle. Apparently it seems that objects can be either coherent or non-coherent but they cannot be both simultaneously. This is almost true. We show that a system can be coherent and non-coherent simultaneously but an observer can distinguish only one concept at a time.

37

**Oleg Olendski**, King Saud University, King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, Saudi Arabia

**Abstract:**Thermodynamic properties of the one-dimensional quantum well (QW) with miscellaneous permutations of the Dirichlet (D) and Neumann (N) boundary conditions (BCs) at its surfaces in the perpendicular to the surfaces electric field $\mathscr{E}$ are calculated in the framework of canonical and two grand canonical ensembles. A pronounced maximum accompanied by the adjacent minimum of the canonical specific heat $c_V$ dependence on the temperature $T$ for the flat pure Neumann QW and their absence for other BCs are predicted and explained by the structure of the corresponding energy spectrum. Applied field leads to the formation of the new or modification of the existing extrema what is qualitatively explained by the influence of the associated electric potential. A salient maximum of $c_V$ is observed on the $T$ axis for one fermion and its absence for any other number $N$ of corpuscles. Qualitative and quantitative understanding of this phenomenon employs the analysis of the chemical potential and its temperature dependence for different $N$. It is proved that critical temperature $T_{cr}$ of the Bose-Einstein (BE) condensation increases with the applied voltage for any number of particles and for any BC permutation except the ND case at small intensities $\mathscr{E}$ what is explained again by the modification by the field of the interrelated energies. It is shown that even for the temperatures smaller than $T_{cr}$ the total dipole moment $\langle P\rangle$ may become negative for the quite moderate $\mathscr{E}$. For either Fermi or BE system, the influence of the electric field on the heat capacity is shown to be suppressed with $N$ growing. Different asymptotic cases of, e.g., the small and large temperatures and low and high voltages are derived analytically and explained physically.

38

**Vladimir Tertychny-Dauri**, Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Physics and Engineering, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The study of own fields and charged particles motion and also charged fission splinters of a heavy nucleuses into nonrelativistic approximation is the subject of this paper research. The main efforts are concentrated in quest of charged share components by the radioactive β‾ — disintegration. The corresponding field equations and equations of motion in the nuclear electrodynamics processes are obtained and their solutions are found. Analysis of the microscopic equations is generalized to the level of the macroscopic description of continuous medium electrodynamics and is accompanied by quantumomechanical additions.

39

**Jonathan Seyrich**, University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Math and Science, Germany

**Abstract:**In simulations of possible sources of gravitational waves, long-term integrations of general relativistic binary systems are required. For this purpose, we show that the structure preserving Gauss Runge-Kutta schemes are efficient and accurate integrators for various systems such as extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) described by the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations, EMRIs described by a Hamiltonian approximation and post-Newtonian systems.

40

**Won-Kwang Park**, Kookmin University, Mathematics, Korea, Republic of

**Abstract:**It has been confirmed through the results of various numerical simulations that the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied to limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application of this algorithm is somewhat heuristic. In this study, we identify a necessary condition for applying MUSIC to the imaging of a collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that the MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. We perform some numerical experiments on noisy synthetic data to support our findings.

41

**Maria Shmykova**, FEFU, Theoretical and experimental physics, Russian Federation

**Leonid Afremov**, Far Eastern Federal University, Departament of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**Study of nanoparticles led to the emergence of new structures, so-called core/shell nanoparticles. Notable among these are the Co/Au nanoparticles, which are due to the unique properties widely used in biomedicine . Feature of the magnetic properties of Co/Au nanoparticles is determined by the exchange interaction at the core/shell boundary. For investigation of hysteresis characteristics of Co/Au nanoparticles a model of two-phase nanoparticles was used: Ellipsoid-shaped Co/Au nanoparticle contains uniformly magnetized ellipsoidal cobalt core with long axis coincides with the long axis of the core/shell nanoparticle oriented along an axis Oz; It's considered that the cristalography anisotropy axis of cobalt parallel to the axis Oz, and spontaneous magnetization vectors of both phases Is(Au) and Is(Co) are located in one plane yOz which contain long axes of phases; External magnetic field H is applied along axis Oz. Modeling of the magnetization process of Co/Au nanoparticles revealed that coercive field and spontaneous magnetization is reduced with size, due to the increased role of thermal fluctuations in the system. Obtained results are in good agreement with an experiment.

42

**Leonid Afremov**, Far Eastern Federal University, Departament of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Aleksandr Petrov**, Far Eastern Federal University, Departament of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**There is magnetic ordering process to model in the approximation of the “average spin” in amorphous ultrathin films. The formalism of the model is based on the assumption that the interaction field of the spin magnetic moment with the nearest magnetic moments is distributed in a random manner. By replacing instantaneous values of the magnetic moments with the ensemble average values of the magnetic moments and using distribution function of the interaction fields, it is easy to derive equations determining the relative average magnetic moments in each film monolayer. It has been shown as a result of modeling study that the average magnetic moment, the critical temperature of the magnetic phase transition and critical concentration of percolation depends on the film thickness. As expected, the critical temperature of the magnetic phase transition increases with the number of monolayers and the critical concentration of the transition from an ordered state to a disordered decreases.

43

**Kehui Wu**, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, State key lab for surface physics, China

**Abstract:**Graphene and silicene are two elemental 2D materials discovered so far, consisting of single sheet of C and Si atoms, respectively. Both graphene and silicene host Dirac fermion state that induces exotic spintronic and optoelectronic properties. To explore these effects, in many cases it requires a control of the electronic state, for examples, doping or opening a gap at the Dirac point. Chemical adsorption is an effective method to modify the electronic property of graphene, where a dramatic band-gap opening was observed upon graphene hydrogenation. Theoretical calculations also suggested intriguing properties in chemically modified silicene, for examples, large gap (~3 eV) opening, interesting ferromagnetic and optoelectronic properties. Here we present our experimental works on the surface chemistry of silicene by oxidation, hydrogenation and halogenation. We found interesting long range ordered phases in hydrogenated and halogenated silicene, revealing the reaction nature of silicene with these two adsorbates. Moreover, we found that hydrogenation can help us to disclose the seemingly complicated superstructures of clean silicene on Ag, and to find out the intrinsic structure of the underlying silicon network.

44

**Leonardo dos Santos Lima**, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Física e Matemática - DFM, Brazil

**Abstract:**We use the Self Consistent Harmonic Approximation together with the Kubo formalism of the Linear Response Theory to study the spin transport in the quasi-two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a square lattice with easy-plane ion single anisotropy at zero temperature. The regular part of the spin conductivity $\sigma^{reg}(\omega)$ is determined for several values of the critical ion single parameter $D_{c}$, that separates the low $D$ region from the large $D$ quantum paramagnetic phase. We have obtained an abrupt change in the spin conductivity in the point of phase transition indicating a strong influence of frustration on the spin transport properties.

45

**Petr Andriushchenko**, Far Eastern Federal University, Theoretical and expiremental physics, Russia

**Leonid Afremov**, Far Eastern Federal University, Departament of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Victor Usachev**, Far Eastern Federal University, Theoretical and expiremental physics, Russia

**Abstract:**This paper represents ideas of the application of the method Movable Cellular Automata for modeling the distribution of magnetic particles in an elastic non magnetic matrix. The basic principles of mathematical model and algorithms is shown below. The model is represented as an ensemble of N discrete elements (automata), which identified the characteristic physical properties, rules of interaction and the possible states. Nearby automata capable of forming bonds with each other. Each machine can have 4 neighbors in a square package or 6 neighbors in the dense packing in the 2D model. Bound pair belong the same piece of material, and pair of unrelated automata belong to different fragments. The criterion for the formation of link and the link gap is the distance between the automata. The part of automata uniformly magnetized and interact with each other like magnetic dipoles. The special conditions can be given for certain groups of automata, for example, the lower layer can be fixed, and the upper layer can be influenced by an external force. Critical integration time step dt affects the accuracy of the calculations. Speed of sound in the medium venv possible to use for evaluate dt: dt = 0.25(d/ venv), venv = √ (K/ρ + 4G/3ρ), ρ - density, K - bulk compression modulus, G - shear modulus. In the case of different types of automata the smallest of their respective times is accepted. Offset the automaton from its position at the previous step is calculated according to the Werle’s scheme. At each step of integration the forces, acting on the automaton by the system is calculated, after a new speed and new coordinates of automata is calculated. The resultant force is the sum of the elastic and viscous forces, as well as force of the magnetic interaction automata.

46

**gülşah aydın şekerci**, süleyman demirel university, science and arts faculty, Turkey

**Abstract:**The optimality for a lot of discipline is an important. The search for extremes is the subject of research for mountaineers, scientists, mathematicians, physicists, biologists. So, the calculus of variation was developed with its e§ects. One of these e§ects is relaxed elastic line. Because, a curve which minimizes the value of energy density is called relaxed elastic line. In this study, we analyzed relaxed elastic line in Minkowski space which is the mathematical modeling of Einsteinís relativity theory. For this space, when oriented surface is lightlike and the curve is lightlike, we calculated necessary boundary conditions to be extremal of the curve. So, we examined all of situations and we obtained the results by taking advantage from the relationship between the curve and the surface

47

**Daniel Rodríguez-Pérez**, UNED, Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Spain

**Oscar Sotolongo-Grau**, Fundació ACE. Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades., , Spain

**María del Mar Desco**, UNED, Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Spain

**J. Carlos Antoranz**, UNED, Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Spain

**Abstract:**The effects of radiation on a tissue (being it healthy or cancerous) are well described by current linear-quadratic (LQ) radiobiological model for low absorbed doses around the 2 Gy often used in clinical fractionation. However, experimental data show a disagreement between the predicted and the observed effect of large doses. The Sotolongo et al. (2011) radiobiological (SRB) model, derived from Tsallis nonextensive entropy, has shown a good agreement with experiments for high absorbed doses, where LQ overestimates the dose required for a required effect. Other studies have reported a crossover in LQ model where its effects are underestimated for large doses. In this paper we develop a mechanistic version of the SRB model and show that it can reproduce both behaviors with a minimum set of assumptions. We compare the results of our simulations with some data reported in the literature. We also trivially adapt this model to fractionated radiotherapy and, in particular, to hypofractionation for which we draw some conclusions.

48

**H.B. Xu**, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Mechanical Engineering, China

**Abstract:**The temperature and thermal stress field are important factors for controlling laser cutting quality. In the present study, thermal stress field analysis for laser cutting corner with a fluctuant cutting speed is carried out. Firstly, a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model is established to simulate the temperature and thermal stress field. Then the factors of influencing the cutting speed fluctuation such as corner angle and cutting speed are studied in laser cutting corner. It is found that the constrained cutting speed at the corner introduces the phenomenon of corner burning and uneven residual stress distribution. The predicted temperature, thermal stress results agree well with the experiment data through the laser cutting corner experiment of 3 mm steel plate.

49

**Elias Vagenas**, Kuwait University, Physics, Kuwait

**Abstract:**In this paper, employing the path integral method in the framework of a canonical description of a Schwarzschild black hole, we obtain the corrected inverse temperature and entropy of the black hole. The corrections are those coming from the quantum effects as well as from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle effects. Furthermore, an equivalence between the polymer quantization and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle description is shown provided the parameters characterizing these two descriptions are proportional.

50

**Tatyana Gnitetskaya**, Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The model of an intradisciplinary connections was elaborated on the base of the theory of graphs. Every connection which appears in training content may be presented as oriented marked graphs. Each graph is a tree. In this paper we presented definition and model of intradisciplinary connections for example of physics course. The quantitative parameters of model are described in this paper. Quantitative method based on this model could be help to optimize a content of physics course. Furthermore using this model we can distinguish fundamental notions, laws and other elements of knowledge to separate group. This group is very important during the process of creating training course.

51

**Tatyana Gnitetskaya**, Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Russian Federation

**Elena Ivanova**, Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Russia

**Abstract:**An application of the graph model of inter-subject links to University Physics and Chemistry courses is presented in this paper. A part of inter-subject space with directions of inter-subject links from Physics to Chemistry in the group of physical concepts has been shown. The graph model of inter-subject links includes quantitative indicators. Its numerical values are given in the article. The degree of connectedness between the data of Physics and Chemistry courses is discussed for the courses considered. The effect of the courses placement within a curriculum on the value of their connectedness is shown. The placement of courses within a curriculum can provide the study of the courses at the same time or consecutive study, when one course precedes another.

52

**Alberto Guardone**, Politecnico di Milano, Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Italy

**Abstract:**The transonic flow at the throat section of a gas-dynamic nozzle is studied in adapted conditions to assess the influence of the fluid molecular complexity and total thermodynamic state on the discharge coefficient. The Sauer method is applied to solve the transonic perturbation potential equation in the vicinity of the nozzle throat for a general, non-ideal thermodynamic fluid model. For the first time, an analytical expression is derived that allows one to compute the discharge coefficient in terms of the nozzle curvature at the throat section and of the value of the fundamental derivative at sonic conditions, which depends on the fluid molecular complexity and on the thermodynamic state in the reservoir. The analytical model exposes a linear dependence of the discharge coefficient on the value of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics in sonic conditions. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are presented to verify of the theoretical findings and to assess the limits of the small perturbation hypothesis. The present findings are relevant to non-ideal fluid flows in gas-dynamics nozzles, including Organic Rankine Cycle engines for renewable energy applications, super-critical CO2 nozzle flows, valves operating with compressible fluids and space propulsion applications.

53

**Mariusz Krawiec**, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Institute of Physics, Poland

**Agata Podsiadły-Paszkowska**, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Institute of Physics, Poland

**Abstract:**Using density functional theory we study structural and electronic properties of silicene on ultrathin Pb layers. A special emphasis is put on formation of silicene due to Pb quantum size effect (QSE) states. Several possible silicene superstructures have been found featuring QSE-dependent binding energies, much lower than in the case of Ag(111) substrate. The linear dispersion of silicene bands and possible energy gap opening as a function of Pb layers is also discussed.

54

**Spyridon Vossos**, NKUA, Chemistry, Greece

**Elias Vossos**, NKUA, Physics, Greece

**Abstract:**Relativity Theory was fundamental for the development of Quantum Physics. These parts of Physics are applied to sections, such as Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology and Medicine. As a result, a significant change on Relativity will lead to changes on the above scientific sections. Special Relativity, as is applied until now, cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three observers are related, because Lorentz Boost is not closed transformation. In this presentation, considering Linear Space-time Transformation, we demand the maintenance of Minkowski Space-time distance S2. In addition, we demand this Transformation to be closed, so there is no need for axis rotation. The solution is a matrix (Vossos Matrix) containing complex numbers. As a result, space becomes complex, but time remains real. Thus, the transitive attribute in parallelism, which is equivalent to the Euclidean Request, is also valid for moving observers. Choosing real space-time for the unmoved observer (O), all the natural sizes are real, too. Using Vossos Transformation for moving observers, the four-vectors’ zero component (such as energy) is real, in contrast with space-components that are complex, but their norm is real. It is proved that moving relative to (O) human (O΄) meter length, according to Lorentz Transformation. In addition, we find rotation Matrix Vossos-Lorentz that turns natural sizes’ complex components to real. We also prove that speed of light is invariant, when complex components are used and Vossos Transformation is closed for three sequential observers. After, we find out the connection between two moving relative to (O) observers: X΄΄= ΛLO΄΄(Ο) ΛLO(Ο΄) Χ΄. We applied this theory, finding relations between natural sizes, that are the same as these extracted by classic relativity, when two observers are related (i.e. relativistic Doppler shift is the same). But, the results are different, when more than two observers are related. Vossos Transformation of electromagnetic tensor Fμν, leads to complex electromagnetic fields for a moving observer. When the unmoved observer (O) and a moving observer (O΄) are related, the unmoved observer (O) measure the same real electromagnetic fields as those are given, using Lorentz Transformation, but moving observer (O΄) measure complex electromagnetic fields with the same form. Complex electromagnetic tensor turn to real using the form F΄ = ΛBLΟ΄(Ο) F΄ΒΛBLΟ(Ο΄) . When there are two moving, relative to (O) observers (O΄) and (Ο΄΄), their real electromagnetic tensors are related, using the form F΄΄= ΛLΟ΄΄ (Ο) ΛL Ο(Ο΄) F΄ [ΛLΟ΄΄ (Ο) ΛL Ο(Ο΄) ]T . In addition, we prove that the relation between two moving, relative to (O) observers, when they use real coordinates, causes a real rotation between their frames. The turn is opposite to the turn of Thomas and has a little different measure, when the velocities are small. We apply these to the Uniform Circular Motion and to the hydrogen atom, considering that the proton is the unmoved observer (O) and the laboratory observer (O΄) has infinitesimal velocity. Using Perturbation Theory we calculate the position of the fine structure peaks of the atomic spectrum. The result is better not only than this extracted using P. Dirac Theory, but also than that extracted using L. H. Thomas Method.

55

**Yulia Maslennikova**, Kazan Federal University, Radiophysics, Russian Federation

**Liliya Spirina**, Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, Russia

**Vladimir Bochkarev**, Kazan Federal University, , Russia

**Abstract:**Ionograms represent the observation data of ionosonde that transmits radio waves toward the ionosphere while sweeping frequencies and measures the delay time of reflected signals. The result diagram expresses signal strength as a contour with the apparent altitude being taken on the axis of ordinate, and frequency on the axis of abscissa. The scaling and interpretation of ionograms attract continuous interest in both the scientific and practical context. Unfortunately, it is a time-consuming task to manually scale ionograms and evaluate the related ionospheric parameters. In this paper, we propose a method of two-step automatic ionogram recognition. The first stage is the data pre-processing that includes different filtering technique to eliminate artifacts and distortion due to other users of the high-frequency channel and the ionosphere. The second stage is automatic pattern identification based on the Canny method and correlation analysis. This technique were tested using ionograms of the ionosonde “Cyclon-GPS” that was developed in Kazan federal university. “Cyclon-GPS” is a vertical sounding ionosonde with a working frequency range from 1 to 32 Mhz and “minute by minute” regime of ionograms recording. The proposed technique was successfully applied for stable trace extraction (like F-, E-, D-layers). Additionally it allowed us to detect automatically sporadic effects like Es-layer and traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID).

56

**Frantisek Vizda**, University of Defence, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Czech Republic

**Abstract:**In this contribution the determination of parameters describing the optical properties of thin films using non-linear least squares method is analyzed. It will be shown that the reflectance of rough thin films depends on the rms values of the heights of the irregularities of the boundary roughness of thin films. The measured spectral dependences of reflectance enable us to determine the optical and statistical parameters of thin films through the non-linear least squares fitting algorithm. The possibilities and limitations of this procedure will be demonstrated for thin films on semiconductor substrates.

57

**Vaia Koukou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Niki Martini**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Christos Michail**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Panagiota Sotiropoulou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Nektarios Kalyvas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Ioannis Kandarakis**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**George Nikiforidis**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**George Fountos**, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology , Greece

**Abstract:**In this simulation study, an analytical model was used in order to determine the optimal acquisition parameters for a dual energy breast imaging system. The modeled detector system, consisted of a 33.91mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screen, placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS sensor. Tungsten anode X-ray spectra, filtered with various filter materials and filter thicknesses were examined for both the low- and high-energy beams, resulting in 3.375 combinations. The selection of these filters was based on their K absorption edge (K-edge filtering). The calcification signal-to-noise ratio (SNRtc) and the mean glandular dose (MGD) were calculated. The total mean glandular dose was constrained to be within acceptable levels. Optimization was based on the maximization of the SNRtc/MGD ratio. The results showed that the optimum spectral combination was 40kVp with added beam filtration of 100 um Ag and 70kVp Cu filtered spectrum of 1000 um for the low- and high-energy, respectively. The minimum detectable calcification size was 150 um. Simulations demonstrate that this dual energy X-ray technique could enhance breast calcification detection.

58

**Niki Martini**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Vaia Koukou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Christos Michail**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Panagiota Sotiropoulou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Nektarios Kalyvas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Ioannis Kandarakis**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**George Nikiforidis**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**George Fountos**, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology , Greece

**Abstract:**Breast microcalcifications are mainly composed of calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) and apatite (a calcium-phosphate mineral form). Any pathologic alteration (carcinogenesis) of the breast may produce apatite. In the present simulation study, an analytical model was implemented in order to distinguish malignant and non-malignant lesions. The Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P) mass ratio and the standard deviation (SD) of the calcifications were calculated. The size of the calcifications ranged from 100 to 1000 um, in 50 um increments. The simulation was performed for hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate calcifications. The optimum pair of energies for all calcifications was 22keV and 50keV. Hydroxyapatite and calcite calcifications were sufficiently characterized through their distinct confidence interval (99.7%, 3SD) values for calcifications sizes above 500 um, while the corresponding sizes for hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate characterization were found above 250 um. Initial computer simulation results indicate that the proposed method can be used in breast cancer diagnosis, reducing the need for invasive methods, such as biopsies.

59

**Nektarios Kalyvas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Niki Martini**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Vaia Koukou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Christos Michail**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Panagiota Sotiropoulou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Ioannis Valais**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece , Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Ioannis Kandarakis**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**George Fountos**, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology , Greece

**Abstract:**Dual Energy imaging is a promising method for visualizing masses and microcalcifications in digital mammography. Currently commercially available detectors may be suitable for dual energy mammographic applications. The scope of this work was to theoretically examine the performance of the Radeye CMOS digital indirect detector under three low- and high-energy spectral pairs. The detector was modeled through the linear system theory. The pixel size was equal to 22.5 um and the phosphor material of the detector was a 33.9 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor screen. The examined spectral pairs were (i) a 40kV W/Ag (0.01cm) and a 70kV W/Cu (0.1cm) target/filter combinations, (ii) a 40kV W/Cd (0.013cm) and a 70kV W/Cu (0.1cm) target/filter combinations and (iii) a 40kV W/Pd (0.008cm) and a 70kV W/Cu (0.1cm) target/filter combinations. For each combination the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), showing the signal to noise ratio transfer, the detector optical gain (DOG), showing the sensitivity of the detector and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the detector output signal were calculated. The second combination exhibited slightly higher DOG (326 photons per X-ray) and lower CV (0.755%) values. In terms of electron output from the RadEye CMOS, the first two combinations demonstrated comparable DQE values; however the second combination provided an increase of 6.5% in the electron output.

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**Christos Michail**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**George Karpetas**, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece , Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**George Fountos**, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology , Greece

**Nektarios Kalyvas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Niki Martini**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Vaia Koukou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Ioannis Valais**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece , Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Ioannis Kandarakis**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Abstract:**The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.

61

**Aditya Mushyam**, Technical University of Catalunya, Barcelona, Fluid Mechanics, Spain

**Abstract:**In the present study, two dimensional flow over a backward-facing step in laminar flow regime with application of active flow control (AFC) technique is analysed. The inspiration for the present work is to gauge the effectiveness of implementing AFC in automobiles to reduce drag, since a considerable amount of the energy needed for a vehicle to move is dissipated at the rear of the vehicle in the form of vortex shedding. In order to analyze the influence of AFC on the boundary layer and the downstream vortex shedding, two different kinds of AFC techniques have been used in this study namely zero net mass flow actuators and fluidic actuators. A parametric non dimensional analysis has been carried out by varying the frequency from 0.025 to 0.1; jet amplitude was modified between 0.05 and 1. Four different positions of the groove were simulated, groove was respectively located at 0.024a, 0.047a, 0.072a and 0.097a, measured upstream from the right side upper edge. Three different non dimensional groove widths 0.023a, 0.048a and 0.073a were also evaluated, where a is the step height. The idea behind this study was to determine an optimal configuration to reduce the drag on the step and to suppress the vortex dissipation in the wake of the step. It was observed that when using an AFC frequency of ± 10% the vortex shedding frequency, was causing the maximum drag reduction. When comparing the effects of zero net mass flow actuators with the fluidic actuators, it was observed that zero net mass flow actuators were more effective.

62

**Ramaz Khomeriki**, Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Physics Department, Georgia

**Abstract:**Conceptual mechanism of amplification of phonons by phonons on the basis of nonlinear band-gap transmission (supratransmission) phenomenon is presented. As an example the system of weakly coupled chains of anharmonic oscillators is considered. One (source) chain is driven harmonically by boundary with a frequency located in the upper band close to the band edge of the ladder system. Amplification happens when a second (gate) chain is driven by a small signal in the counter phase and with the same frequency as first chain. If the total driving of both chains overcomes the band-gap transmission threshold the large amplitude band-gap soliton emerges and amplification scenario is realized. The mechanism is interpreted as nonlinear superposition of evanescent and propagating nonlinear modes manifesting in a single or double soliton generation working in band-gap or band-pass regimes, respectively. The results could be straightforwardly generalized for all-optical or all-magnonic contexts and has all the promises for logic gate operation.

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**Mª Carmen Sánchez Gil**, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC); VAT: ESQ2818002-D, , Spain

**Abstract:**One of the fundamental goals of modern Astronomy is to estimate the physical parameters of galaxies from images in different spectral bands. We present a hierarchical Bayesian model for obtaining age maps from images in the Hα line (taken with Taurus Tunable Filter (TTF)), ultraviolet band (far UV or FUV; from GALEX) and infrared bands (24, 70 and 160 microns (μm); from Spitzer). As shown in Sánchez-Gil et al. 2011 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18759.x), we present the burst ages for young stellar populations in nearby ( 10 M○, ages α to FUV flux ratio therefore gives a good relative indicator of very recent star formation history (SFH). As a nascent star-forming region evolves, the Hα line emission declines earlier than the UV continuum, leading to a decrease in the Hα/FUV ratio. Through a specific star-forming galaxy model (Starburst 99, SB99), we can obtain the corresponding theoretical ratio Hα / FUV to compare with our observed flux ratios, and thus to estimate the ages of the observed regions. Due to the nature of the problem, it is necessary to propose a model of high complexity to take into account the mean uncertainties, and the interrelationship between parameters when the Hα / FUV flux ratio mentioned above is obtained. To address the complexity of the model, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model, where a joint probability distribution is defined to determine the parameters (age, metallicity, IMF), from the observed data, in this case the observed flux ratios Hα / FUV. The joint distribution of the parameters is described through an i.i.d. (independent and identically distributed random variables), generated through MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) techniques.

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**Leonid Son**, Ural Federal University, , Russian Federation

**Abstract:**For many glassformers (especially metallic glasses), their structure may be presented as a set of linear topological defects embedded into a media with crystalline local order. Locally, these defects are similar to dislocations and disclinations, so we suggest a description of the shear dynamics in terms of kinks motion along the topological defect lines, as it is adopted in crystalline materials. For the motion of the kink, we write out the Fokker - Plank equation in a self - consistent potential. The glass transition occurs to be described as a localization of the kink.

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**Bassim Bachy**, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, Germany

**Jörg Franke**, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, Germany

**Abstract:**The surface roughness (Ra) after the LDS process plays as a very important factor in the MID process, especially for the reliability of the MID products. On the other hand the surface roughness depends on the complex LDS process parameters such as laser power, laser frequency and laser speed. So that it’s very important to use a reliable model to predict the surface roughness as well as to correlate the important process parameters with the surface roughness. This helps to achieve the reliability of the MID products, reduce the effort and to save a lot of materials wastage and cost for the requiring experimental tests in the MID process. In this work we developed a mathematical model by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and theoretical calculations to predicate the surface roughness for the substrate surface after laser structuring. Moreover this model can be used to find importance of each process parameters, and finally to propose the optimum process parameters. A set of experimental tests have been carried out in this study to validate the developed ANN and the theoretical models, and to investigate the relationship between the process parameters and the surface roughness. It has been found that the predicted values for the theoretical and the proposal ANN models was a very closer to the experimental values, and the average percentage errors were 4,16 % and 6,32%, for the ANN and the theoretical models respectively

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PREDICTION OF THE LIPOPHILICITY OF BILE ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES BY HIERARCHICAL FUZZY CLUSTERING

**Costel Sarbu**, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca , Department of Chemistry, Romania

**Abstract:**Cluster analysis is a large field, both within fuzzy sets and beyond it. Many algorithms have been developed to obtain hard clusters from a given data set. Among those, the c-means algorithms are probably the most widely used. Hard c-means execute a sharp classification, in which each object (compound) is either assigned to a class or not. The membership to a class of objects therefore amounts to either 1 or 0. The application of Fuzzy sets in a classification function causes this class membership to become a relative one and consequently an object can belong to several classes at the same time but with different degrees. The fuzzy c-means algorithms are prototype-based procedures, which minimize the total of the distances between the prototypes and the objects by the construction of a target function. Fuzzy generalized c-means is easy and well improved tool, which have been applied in many fields of chemistry including prediction of biological activity. In this paper, hierarchical fuzzy clustering approach was applied to the study of bile acids lipophilicity using different molecular descriptors available in Alchemy 2000 (17 descriptors) and Alchemy 2000 (11 descriptors). The results obtained indicated a very good performance in terms of classification and prediction for the fuzzy clustering algorithm applied. All the statistical results (the paired t-test, Wilcoxon sign rank-sum test and Friedman ANOVA) confirm the hypothesis that the differences between the experimental and predicted values of lipophilicity for the investigated compounds are not significant and, as a direct consequence, the proposed fuzzy procedure seems to have a strong predictive power.

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**Diego Fernando Devia Narvaez**, Universidad Tecnólogica de Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia

**Abstract:**A model of the plasma generated in an arc low-pressure for studying the parameters in this from the kinetic theory is presented. This approach allows for the radial dependence of typical parameters such as electrostatic potential, ion kinetic energy, electron temperature and density, considering a model of spherical symmetry and a fluid in steady state. The behavior of the potential profile in the region around the arc, which causes an extra acceleration of the ions ejected from the cathode spots are studied. The modeled equations were solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method of fourth order.

68

**André Timpanaro**, University of São Paulo, Physics, Brazil

**Serge Galam**, SciencesPo, CEVIPOF, France

**Abstract:**Kondrat's extension of the Sznajd model is a sociophysics model where agents can have 2 different opinion states (-1 and +1) and that allows for more flexible interactions among the agents than in other models, like the traditional Sznajd model or the two components model. The time evolution of this model is given by choosing at each time step an agent i and 2 of its neighbours j and k. The agent i will then change its opinion with probability $P(s_is_j, s_is_k)$. We use the Kirkwood approximation to investigate the exit probability E(p) (the probability that the system ends up in the state where all the agents have opinion +1, given that the initial condition is drawn with no correlations and with a probability p for an agent to have opinion +1) of this model in one dimension. The Kirkwood approximation has recently been used to succesfuly calculate this probability in the usual Sznajd model, despite doubts about the soundness of the approximation it implies. Comparing our analytical results with simulations shows that there are more cases beyond the Sznajd model where the approximation is acurate, while there are also cases where it gives the wrong answers. We also extend the investigation to cases where the exit probability doesn't exist and test the predictions numerically in these cases.

69

**Yuliya Zhiganshevna Pchelkina**, Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU), Applied Mathematics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The general solution of the equation anharmonic oscillation of a physical pendulum is considered as a function of the nonlinearity parameter and has a singularity at zero. This means that the application of different methods of regular decompositions in this parameter is impossible. Perturbation theory in the transformed canonical variables, using the new parameter of smallness was developed.

70

**Leonid Son**, Ural Federal University, , Russian Federation

**Valery Sidorov**, Ural State Pedagogical University, , Russia

**Pjotr Popel**, Ural State Pedagogical University, Institute of Physics, Technology and Economics, Russian Federation

**Dmitry Shulgin**, Ural Federal University, , Russia

**Abstract:**For binary liquids with limited miscibility of the components, we provide the corrections to the equation of state which arise from the nonergogic diffusivity. It is shown that these corrections result in lowering of critical miscibility point. In some cases, it may result in a bifurcation of miscibility curve: the mixtures near 50% concentration which are homogeneous at the microscopic level, occur to be too stable to provide a quasi - eutectic triple point. These features provide a new look on the phase diagrams of some binary systems. In present work, we discuss Ga-Pb, Fe-Cu, and Cu-Zr alloys. Our investigation connects their complex behavior in liquid state with the shapes of their phase diagrams.

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**Gerard Berginc**, THALES, R&T, France

**Abstract:**Metamaterials are composite structures made of small metallic or dielectric particles. These particles play the same role as atoms or molecules in ordinary materials, which makes metamaterials considered as « artificial materials ». In this paper, we consider a three-dimensional disordered medium with randomly rough interfaces. For classical waves, the most interesting case is that of three-dimensional disorder. The quantity that obeys the disordered wave equation – the electric field – is a vector and not a scalar as in the Schrödinger equation. If many theoretical and numerical approaches have been developed to model transport of scalar light in random media, few or even no method at all nowadays can deal with ensembles of complex nanoparticles in interaction between themselves and randomly rough boundaries. This aspect of the problem was never considered in detail up to now. In mesoscopic physics, multiple light scattering in disordered potentials gives rise to complex wave interference phenomena, like speckle correlations or Anderson localization of light, and to applications like imaging through opaque biological tissues or photovoltaics. We present a theory of transport based on an equation for second statistical moment, i.e. the Bethe-Salpeter equation in which the vectorial character of electromagnetic wave is taken into account. We can derive the radiative transfer equation from the Maxwell equations. The procedure is to write the Maxwell equations in an integral form with the help of Green tensors and to apply the Wigner transform to the equation obtained. The main advantage to starting from wave equations is that we are able to take into account new contributions to the scattered intensity such as the enhanced backscattering and the correlations between the scatterers that cannot be obtained from phenomenological radiometric considerations. This paper deals with the coherent backscatter enhancement effect, called the weak localization effect, which occurs when the electromagnetic intensity is scattered back to the source, it is coherent effect experienced by waves when propagating through a disordered system despite the randomness of the system. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is constructed in order that the medium and the boundaries are treated on the same footing. With this unified Bethe-Salpeter equation, a general expression is obtained, whatever the choice of the scattering operators used at the boundaries. Mathematically, the way to study the solution of the generalized Bethe-Salpeter equation is based on the use of diagrammatic perturbation theory. The description of the backscattering enhancement reduces to augmenting the diagrammatic expansions of the transfer equation by the contribution of the so-called most-crossed diagrams. In our approach, we use scattering operators which are a unified way to describe how electromagnetic waves interact with scatterers and boundaries. To use these operators, we have introduced two kinds of Green tensors. The first one describes the field scattered by the volume, which contains the scatterers, and by the randomly rough boundaries. The second type of Green tensors gives the field scattered by a slab with rough boundaries where the scatterers have been replaced by a homogeneous medium described by an effective permittivity. With these Green tensors, we can separate the contributions of the surfaces and the volume. The Quasi-Crystalline Coherent Potential Approximation (QC-CPA) is taken into account for the contribution of the random medium, which is made of spherical nanoparticles of given permittivity in a homogeneous dielectric background medium. For 3-dimensional slabs with nanoscale roughness and nano-particles, the enhanced backscattering is produced by different mechanisms, wave scattering by the same boundary, wave coupling by the two boundaries or wave scattering by the randomly distributed nano-particles. We give some numerical examples of scattering properties of random structures in thin films. Up to this point we have considered linear radiative transfer theory. In a region of high disorder, wave packet do not spread out, they are standing waves exponentially vanishing at infinity, we are in a localization regime while traveling quasi-plane waves are considered in transfer theory. As the strong localization predicted by Anderson is a non-perturbative theory, the development of computational schemes based on perturbation theory is a challenging problem. The different developed methods extrapolate the estimates from the region of weak disorder to the region of high disorder. Berginc, G. and Maradudin, A.A., "Scattering properties of random structures in thin films," in [Optical thin films and coatings], A Piegari and F. Flory (Ed.), Woodhead Publishing Limited, Oxford, 177-289 (2013).

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**Natassya Silva**, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Matemática e Ciências da Computação, Australia

**Abstract:**Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used in numerous applications, like remote sensing, precision agriculture and atmospheric data monitoring. Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) is a modality of these aircrafts, which are capable of taking off and landing vertically, like a helicopter. This paper presents the definition and modeling of a fixed-wing VTOL, named AVALON (Autonomous VerticAL takeOff and laNding), which has the advantages of traditional aircrafts with improved performance taking off and landing in small areas. The principles of small UAVs development were followed to achieve a better design and to increase the range of applications for this VTOL. Therefore, we present the design model of AVALON validated in a flight simulator and the results show its validity as a physical option for an UAV platform.

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**Panagiota Sotiropoulou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Vaia Koukou**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Niki Martini**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**Christos Michail**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Evangelia Kounadi**, Ministry of Health, SEYYP, Pireos 205, 11853, Athens, Greece, , Greece

**Ioannis Kandarakis**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, 122 10 Athens, Greece, Radiation Physics, Materials Technology and Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**George Nikiforidis**, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece, Department of Medical Physics, Greece

**George Fountos**, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology , Greece

**Abstract:**In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log-intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors.

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**Nurgissa Myrzakulov**, L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, General and Theoretical Physics, Kazakhstan

**Abstract:**The mimetic f(R) gravity is revisited from the stability of de Sitter point of view. We show that how de Sitter evolves stable in the cosmological era. Our investigation can be used as a potentially interesting idea for early inflation as well as late time acceleration expansion.

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**Yevgen Bilotsky**, Aalto University, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Finland

**Abstract:**Yevgen Bilotsky, Aalto University Foundation School of Chemical Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Finland Michael Gasik, Aalto University Foundation School of Chemical Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Finland Evaluation of internal energy in a crystal lattice requires precise calculation of lattice sums. Such evaluation is a problem in the case of small (nano) particles because the traditional methods are usually effective only for infinite lattices and are adapted to certain specific potentials. In this work, a new method has been developed for calculation of lattice energy. The method is a generalisation of conventional geometric probability techniques for arbitrary fixed lattices in a finite crystal domain. In our model, the lattice energy for wide range of two-body central interaction potentials (including long-range Coulomb potential) has been constructed by using the absolutely convergent sums. No artificial cut-off potential or periodical extension of the domain (which usually involved for such calculations) have been made for calculation of the crystal energy under this approach. As an example of the applications of this techniques, the energy of Coulomb potential has been plotted as the function of the domain size. Evaluation of internal energy in a crystal lattice requires precise calculation of lattice sums. Such evaluation is a problem in the case of small (nano) particles because the traditional methods are usually effective only for infinite lattices and are adapted to certain specific potentials. In this work, a new method has been developed for calculation of lattice energy. The method is a generalisation of conventional geometric probability techniques for arbitrary fixed lattices in a finite crystal domain. In our model, the lattice energy for wide range of two-body central interaction potentials (including long-range Coulomb potential) has been constructed by using the absolutely convergent sums. No artificial cut-off potential or periodical extension of the domain (which usually involved for such calculations) have been made for calculation of the crystal energy under this approach. As an example of the applications of this techniques, the energy of Coulomb potential has been plotted as the function of the domain size.

76

**Ekaterina Khnyreva**, Samara State Aerospace University, Department of Mathematics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**This paper deals with the study of presence of one-factorial stochastic dependence between distribution law of fixed volume of antirecessionary monetary support of enterprise with weak dynamic and size of its net operating loss during time of crisis. There is shown this stochastic dependence by the example of an enterprise from subsection AA of All-Russian classifier of economic activity “Farming, hunting and forestry”.

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**Alexander Moewes**, University of Saskatchewan, Physics and Engineering Physics, Canada

**Abstract:**2012 brought the first reports of a new member of the 2D material family: a hexagonal honeycomb of Si atoms deposited on the Ag(111) surface called “silicene”[1]. The characteristics and stability of freestanding silicene had previously been theoretically explored [2], and there was a strong push to determine if the epitaxial sheets possessed the promising qualities of their hypothetical freestanding counterparts. Initially, the results of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments were thought to indicate that epitaxial silicene had a gapped Dirac cone in its electronic structure [1], as would be expected of freestanding silicene with a broken inversion symmetry. This enticing result, however, would be later overturned through a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques [3-5], and it would eventually be concluded that the epitaxial silicene sheet was in fact metallic with a strong cohesion to the underlying Ag(111) face. However, this conclusion would prove controversial [6,7], as the ambiguity of the ARPES data left some room for interpretation as to whether specific electronic features belonged to the epitaxial Si, the Ag substrate, or represented a hybridization between the two. Soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy (XES and XAS) are synchrotron-based experimental techniques for probing the element-specific projected density of electronic states (PDOS) in the valence and conduction bands of a material. When performed in combination at the Si L2,3 emission and Si 2p absorption edges, XES and XAS allowed us to unambiguously show that the Si valence and conduction states were continuous across the Fermi energy; i.e. that the silicene overlayer was indeed metallic [3]. Complementary DFT simulations also showed a large degree of bonding between the Si overlayer and the Ag substrate. This result is an important but unfortunate finding, as it limits the future utility of epitaxial silicene monolayers on Ag(111). If they are to come into use they must be all at once isolated from their substrates, stable and possessing the linear band dispersion that is responsible for the desirable characteristics unique to 2D electronic systems. One suggested way of achieving these characteristics is to produce a multilayer of silicene on the Ag(111) surface. These materials have been briefly described in the literature, and early indications suggest that they might play host to a Dirac cone structure [8]. However, other reports insist that bilayers and multilayers are inherently unstable, collapsing into bulk Si nanocrystals shortly after the monolayer deposition is complete [9]. Our DFT calculations predict a stable, AA-stacked silicene bilayer on Ag(111) that corresponds nicely to the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) bilayer observations. Unfortunately, these same DFT calculations predict a similar electronic structure as that of the monolayers, namely metallic and bound to the Ag(111). However, our XES and XAS measurements indicate a transition to bulk, sp3-hybridized Si beginning shortly after the completion of a monolayer, supporting the low-energy electron microscopy study that first suggested the nucleation of the silicene sheets to bulk crystals [10] (see Figure). In this way, XES, XAS and DFT provide us with a method for evaluating structural models, predicting and measuring electronic characteristics and determining the composition of a particular sample simultaneously. References: 1. P. Vogt, P. De Padova, C. Quaresima, J. Avila, E. Frantzeskakis, M.C. Asesnsio, A. Resta, B. Ealet and G. Le Lay. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 155501 (2012). 2. S. Cahangirov, M. Topsakal, E. Aktürk, H. Şahin and S. Ciraci. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 236804 (2009). 3. N.W. Johnson, P. Vogt, A. Resta, P. De Padova, I. Perez, D. Muir, E. Z. Kurmaev, G. Le Lay and A. Moewes. Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 5253 (2014) 4. S. Cahangirov, M. Audiffred, P. Tang, A. Iacomino, W. Duan, G. Merino and A. Rubio. Phys. Rev. B 88, 035432 (2013). 5. D. Tsoutsou, E. Xenogiannopoulou, E. Golias, P. Tsipas and A. Dimoulas. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231604 (2013). 6. S. Huang, W. Kang and L. Yang. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 133106 (2013). 7. J. Avila, P. De Padova, S. Cho, I. Colambo, S. Lorcy, C. Quaresima, P. Vogt, A. Resta, G. Le Lay, M. C. Asensio. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25, 262001 (2013). 8. P. De Padova, P. Vogt, A. Resta, J. Avila, I. Razado-Colambo, C. Quaresima, C. Ottaviani, B. Olivieri, T. Bruhn, T. Hirahara, T. Shirai, S. Hasegawa, M. C. Asensio and G. Le Lay. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 163106 (2013). 9. A. Acun, B. Poelsma, H.J.W. Zandvliet and R. van Gastel. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 263119 (2013). 10. N.W. Johnson, D. Muir, E.Z. Kurmaev, and A. Moewes. (under review).

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**Ding-wei Huang**, Chung Yuan Christian University, Physics, Taiwan

**Abstract:**We propose a three-parameter traffic model, which summarizes our previous study of a twenty-four-parameter cellular automaton model for traffic dynamics at roundabout. The system consists of a loop with two junctions. The three parameters control the in-flow, the out-flow (from the junctions,) and the interweave (in the loop.) The dynamics is deterministic and governed by the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process (ASEP) with parallel update. The boundary conditions are stochastic, which include in-flow, out-flow, and interweave. We present preliminary results for a complete phase diagram and all possible phase transitions. Both numerical simulations and analytical results are discussed. On a simple roadway without traffic interweave, traffic dynamics is a competition between in-flow and out-flow which results in two phases: free flow and conventional congestion. On the complex roadway with traffic interweave, there are two more types of congestion: bottleneck and gridlock. The proposed model is able to present economically a clear perspective to these four distinct phases. There are six possible transitions among these four phases. The three transitions among free flow, conventional congestion, and bottleneck (i.e., without involving gridlock) are the typical first-order transitions with an abrupt change of density. Transition between gridlock and free flow is also abrupt. Transition between gridlock and bottleneck is smooth and continuous. Transition between gridlock and conventional congestion is absent. We observe only five transitions among the four phases. Instead of directly related to conventional congestion, gridlock can be taken as an extreme limit of bottleneck. Both bottleneck and gridlock are caused by the traffic interweave. This model can be useful to clarify the characteristics of traffic phases. This model can also be extended for practical applications.

79

**Radka Keslerova**, Czech Technical University in Prague, Dep. of Technical Mathematics, Czech Republic

**David Trdlicka**, Czech Technical University in Prague, , Czech Republic

**Abstract:**This work deals with the numerical modelling of steady flows of incompressible viscous and viscoelastic fluids through the three dimensional channel with T-junction. The fundamental system of equations is the system of generalized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids. This system is based on the system of balance laws of mass and momentum for incompressible fluids. Two different mathematical models for the stress tensor are used for simulation of Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids flow. Numerical solution of the described models is based on cetral finite volume method using explicit Runge-Kutta time integration.

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**Adriano Montanaro**, University of Padua, Department of Mathematics, Italy

**Abstract:**The constitutive relations of piezoelectric ceramics are essentially nonlinear since the so-called piezoelectric moduli depend on the induced strains. Pioneering papers dealt mainly with the isothermal case. In view of applications, however, thermal effects have to be taken into account in connection with thermo-electric behaviors. The equations of nonlinear thermoelectroelasticity were given in [1] by postulating the Clausius-Duhem inequality. Here we consider an electrically polarizable and finitely deformable heat conducting elastic continuum which interacts with the electric field. Without using the Clausius-Duhem inequality, we exploit nonlinear constitutive equations following a Green-Naghdi approach for thermodynamic theories of type III. In the latter approach a new variable $\alpha$ is involved, which is called {\it thermal displacement} and represents a time primitive of some {\it empirical temperature} T, $$ \dot \alpha(x,t)=T(x,t). $$ Hence the case of transverse isotropy is studied and the constitutive equations for the linearized theory are characterized. [1] H.F. Tiersten, On the nonlinear equations of thermoelectroelasticity, Int. J. Engng Sci., 9, 587–604, 1971.

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**Fatma Aydogmus**, Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Turkey

**Eren Tosyali**, Istanbul Bilgi University, School of Advanced Vocational Studies, Turkey

**Abstract:**Today, the effects of noise on dynamical systems are an attractive area of research. The noise acts as a driving term in the equations of motion in nonlinear systems. In this work, we present conformally invariant pure spinor nonlinear Thirring model. Thirring model describes Dirac fermions in (1+1) space-time dimensions with local current-current interaction. This model has rich dynamic of the quantization of relativistic quantum field theories. We investigate the response of Thirring oscillator to white noise by constructing Poincaré sections in phase space.

82

**Eren Tosyali**, Istanbul Bilgi University, School of Advanced Vocational Studies, Turkey

**Fatma Aydogmus**, Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Turkey

**Abstract:**Many theoretical and experimental studies have been performed on nonlinear properties in Bose-Einstein Condansate (BEC). It is well known that BEC is described by Gross-Pitaevskii Equation (GPE) with an external potential. GPE has rich numerical and analytic solutions for different optical lattice because of the interatomic interactions. In this work, we construct an external potential that accelerates the atoms in the x direction with tilted force. Then the regular and chaotic behaviours of GPE are presented with Poincare sections in phase space.

83

**Ksenya Potienko**, Samara State Aerospace University named after academician S.P. Korolev, Radio department, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The following article deals with problem to meet the microacceleration requirements for conducting of technological processes on board of a spacecraft. Different methods of spacecraft orientation are analyzed here to solve this problem.

84

**Antonio Elias Fabris**, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Brazil

**Abstract:**In this work we present a program in Matlab to solve the Problem of Plateau numerically, and the program will include human-computer interfaces. The Problem of Plateau has applications in areas of knowledge like, for instance, Computer Graphics. The solution method will be the same one of the Surface Evolver, but the difference will be a complete graphical interface with the user. This will enable us to implement other kinds of interface like ocular mouse, voice, touch, etc. To date, Evolver does not include any graphical interface, which restricts its use by the scientific community. Specially, its use is practically impossible for most of the Physically Challenged People.

85

**Antonio Elias Fabris**, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Brazil

**Abstract:**We present many algorithmic improvements in our early region filling technique, which in a previous publication* was already proved to be correct for all connected digital pictures. Ours is an integer-only method that also finds all interior points of any given digital picture by displaying and storing them in a locating matrix. Our filling/locating program is applicable both in computer graphics and image processing. (*A programme to determine the exact interior of any connected digital picture, Aditi International Journal of Computational Mathematics 3, 1-23, 2014).

86

**Ksenya Potienko**, Samara State Aerospace University named after academician S.P. Korolev, Radio department, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The article deals with modeling of microaccelerations of spacecraft indoor environment caused by thermal impact while spacecraft enters and leaves the Earth's shade. “NASTRAN” was used for modeling. There were got the own deformation shapes of large elastic elements of spacecraft. The homogeneous plates were used as elastic elements for modeling.

87

**Antonio Elias Fabris**, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Brazil

**Abstract:**We present a fast and reliable program that gives precise location of breast tumours for a partial mastectomy. Our program is fully implemented in the Surface Evolver, which is a general-purpose simulator of physical experiments. By starting from the mammograms that show a tumour one takes its 2D coordinates in each view (CC and MLO). These coordinates, together with some measurements of the patient's breast, are given as input to our simulator. From this point on the simulator reproduces all main steps of taking mammography with a virtual transparent breast that matches the patient's. The virtual mammography procedure is graphically displayed on the computer screen, so that users can track the virtual tumour inside the breast. As output we have the coordinates of the tumour position when the woman lies on the operating table for the surgery. With these coordinates the surgeon can make a small incision into the breast and reach the tumour for its removal. The whole structure of the breast is preserved after a simple plastic correction.

88

**Zhenyi NI**, Zhejiang University, , China

**Rong Wang**, Taiyuan University of Technology, , China

**Hui Jia**, Zhejiang University, , China

**Xiaodong Pi**, Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials & School of Materials Science and Engineering, China

**Abstract:**When silicene is hydrogenated (i. e., passivated by hydrogen), a bandgap occurs so that it becomes a semiconductor. Analogous to all the other semiconductors, doping is highly desired to realize the potential of hydrogenated silicene (H-silicene). In the framework of density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the doping of H-silicene with boron (B) and phosphorus (P). The concentration of B or P ranges from 1.4% to 12.5%. It is found that the doping of B or P enables the indirect-bandgap H-silicene to be a semiconductor with a direct bandgap. With the increase of the concentration of B or P, both the valence band and the conduction band shift to lower energies, while the bandgap decreases. Both B- and P-doping lead to the decrease of the effective mass of holes and electrons in H-silicene. For both B- and P-doped H-silicene a subband absorption peak may appear which blueshifts with the increase of the dopant concentration. Organic surface modification may be critical to the practical use of H-silicene. It is intriguing to know if organic surface modification seriously impacts the structural, electronic and optical properties of H-silicene. We focus on four organic surface modification schemes (hydrosilylation, alkoxylation, aminization and phenylation) with the experimentally demonstrated surface coverage of about 33%. The geometrical structures, band structures and optical absorption of organically surface-modified H-silicene have been compared with those of silicene and H-silicene in the frame work of DFT. It is found that organic surface modification leads to the increase of the buckling distance of silicene, while causing the angles of bonds in the honeycomb structure of silicene to decrease. Although the initial hydrogenation makes silicene become an indirect-bandgap semiconductor, the subsequent organic surface modification schemes further change the band structure of silicene. Hydrosilylation, phenylation, alkoxylation and amination all give rise to the reduction of the bandgap of H-silicene. Hydrosilylated and phenylated H-silicene are indirect-bandgap semiconductors, while alkoxylated and aminated H-silicene are direct-bandgap semiconductors. Changes of the optical absorption induced by organic surface modification are well correlated to the corresponding changes of the band structure.

89

**Yevgen Bilotsky**, Aalto University, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Finland

**Abstract:**Michael Gasik, Aalto University Foundation School of Chemical Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Finland Yevgen Bilotsky, Aalto University Foundation School of Chemical Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Finland The research of mechanical properties of poro-visco-elastic biomaterials is an important task, especially for tailoring the best conditions for ingrowth and healing of implants. In this work we analysed the behaviour of biomaterials under different static and dynamic loading regimes, in "dry" and "wet" conditions. Retrieved data revealed nonlinear relations between applied force and resulting deformation, with time and frequency dependence. These features were described by a nonlinear model, which reasonably fits mentioned peculiarities. The simplified model was validated with numerical simulations using COMSOL software. Upon validation it allows incorporation of the experimental data obtained by biomechanical spectroscopy towards prediction of biomaterials behaviour in "in vitro" conditions, with the purpose to extrapolate to clinically-relevant environment.

90

**Moutushi Dutta Choudhury**, Jadavpur University, Physics, India

**Abstract:**Rheology of polymer gels exhibit visco-elastic behaviours. These properties can be described and analysed involving generalized calculus. Complexity of their behaviour involves fractional order of constitutive equations, as shown by Das(2011), Heymans and Bauwens(1994), Dutta Choudhury et al.(2012).Non-linearity is introduced through a generalized calculus approach by incorporating a non-integer order time derivative in the viscosity equation. A strain hardening proportional to the time lag between the two loading steps is also incorporated.We have modelled viscoelastic effect of polymers and their memory effect of loading by introducing memory kernel during solving constitutive equation of stress-strain. This model reproduces the three salient features observed in the experiment, namely - the memory effect, slight initial oscillations in the strain as well as the long-time solid-like response. Dynamic visco-elasticity of the sample is also reported.

91

**Liviu Chibotaru**, KU Leuven, Chemistry, Belgium

**Abstract:**Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases [1] arise in superconductors under high magnetic fields from the imbalance of the populations of electrons with spin up and spin down caused by strong Zeeman spin splitting of the quasi-particles states. Nevertheless for these states to be realized, superconductivity must not be, firstly, destroy by orbital pair breaking, thus, orbital pair breaking must be smaller than Pauli pair breaking for them to be observed. FFLO phases were predicted to exist in unconventional superconductors with layered structure or with large effective mass, which suppress the effect of orbital pair breaking. The orbital pair breaking is naturally weaker in nano-superconductors, for which higher magnetic fields are, thus, accessible, increasing the possibility of finding stable FFLO phases in them. To study the presence of FFLO phases in nanoscale superconductors, we solve the generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations in a disc geometry. Generalized BdG equations take into account Zeeman spin interaction, and are composed of two sets of standard BdG equations (with an extra Zeeman spin term) connected through a common order parameter. This order parameter is defined as a sum of contributions of both sets of equations. To solve the generalized BdG equations in the disc geometry, we employ a method similar to the one previously developed to solve Ginzburg-Landau equations [2]. First, the one-electron generalized momentum operator (in magnetic field) is projected into the space defined by the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian operator, which is further used as a basis for generalized BdG problem. The generalized BdG equations are solved self-consistently with the BCS equation for the order parameter from which the spatial distribution of the latter in an applied magnetic field is obtained. We will discuss solutions for both standard and generalized BdG equations. We also note that the method used here can be extended to general 2D forms like it was recently proposed to solve Ginzburg-Landau equations in arbitrary planar geometries [3]. [1] P. Fulde, R. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. 135, A550 (1964) ; A. I. Larkin, Y. N. Ovchinnikov, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 762 (1965) [2] L. F. Chibotaru, A. Ceulemans, M. Morelle, G. Teniers, C. Carballeira, V. V. Moshchalkov, J. Math. Phys. 46, 095108 (2005) [3] P. J. Pereira, V. V. Moshchalkov, L. F. Chibotaru, Phys. Rev. E 86, 056709 (2012)

92

**Luis Cortés Vega**, Antofagasta University, Mahematical Department, Chile

**Abstract:**The main objective of this work is to build, based on the Euclidean algorithm, a functional technique, which allows to discover a direct proof of Chinese Remainder Theorem. Also, we given its properties as applications to 2-D acoustic and Diffractal diffusers. The novelty of our technique is its functional algorithmic character, which improves ideas as well as results of the author and his collaborator in a previous work.

93

**Vinicius Ferreira**, Sao Paulo State University "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Adriano Cansian**, Sao Paulo State University "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Abstract:**The Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) constitute an important security layer for computer systems. IDSs are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection have been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an IDS that performs its detections by anomaly. The main aim is the classification of the information provided in the alert of an anomaly in well-defined taxonomies of attacks. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyzes.

94

**Tariq Hussain**, Beijing Institute of Technology, Engineering Mechanics, China

**Abstract:**To understand and predict the physics of explosive materials, numerical models are utilized to simulate various scenarios. Various hazard and vulnerability scenarios for explosives involve multiple shock compression. In the present study, a kind mesoscopic model for shock ignition of solid heterogeneous is examined in order to demonstrate its availability to account for the desensitization by multiple shocks in explosives. Since the mesoscopic model is based on the assumption of the elastic viscoplastic pore collapse mechanism, and the desensitization mechanism is also described usually in connection with the closure of pores, the ability of the mesoscopic model to predict the desensitization effects must be analyzed. For this purpose, the mesoscopic model has been numerically modeled and implemented in hydrodynamic code LS-DYNA as a user defined equation of state. For verification, the double shock, reflected shock and detonation quenching experiments have been modeled. The numerical results show that the model can reproduce various features of the previously reported experiments involving the double shock desensitization of solid explosives.

95

**Pantelis Asvestas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Alexandra Korda**, National Technical University of Athens, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

**Spiros Kostopoulos**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Irini Karanasiou**, Institute of Communications and Computer Systems, , Greece

**Anastasia Ouzounoglou**, National Technical University of Athens, , Greece

**Kostas Sidiropoulos**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, , Greece

**Errikos-Chaim Ventouras**, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**George Matsopoulos**, National Technical University of Athens, , Greece

**Abstract:**Algorithm (GA) is a popular optimization technique that can detect the global optimum of a multivariable function containing several local optima. GA has been widely used in the field of biomedical informatics, especially in the context of designing decision support systems that classify biomedical signals or images into classes of interest. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology, based on GA, for the selection of the optimal (or nearly optimal) subset of features that can be used for the efficient classification of Event Related Potentials (ERPs), which are recorded during the observation of correct or incorrect actions. ERPs are a special category of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, which are recorded from various locations on a subject’s scalp when the subject is presented with external stimuli or events. In our experiment, ERP recordings were acquired from sixteen (16) healthy volunteers who observed correct or incorrect actions of other subjects. The brain electrical activity was recorded at 47 locations on the scalp. The GA was formulated as a combinatorial optimizer for the selection of the combination of electrodes that maximizes the performance of the Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classification algorithm. In particular, during the evolution of the GA, for each candidate combination of electrodes, the well-known Σ-Φ-Ω features were calculated and were evaluated by means of the FCM method. The proposed methodology provided a combination of 24 electrodes, with classification accuracy 90.6%. Thus, GA can be the basis for the selection of features that discriminate ERP recordings of observations of correct or incorrect actions.

96

**Camelia Visan**, IFIN-HH, DFCTI, Romania

**Abstract:**With the ongoing development of state-of-the-art fabrication techniques phononic-crystals have attracted a lot of interest lately [1]. The concept dates back to the 90's [2,3] when it was shown that acoustic wave propagation in elastic media exhibits a band gap and certain frequencies are completely blocked. Adjusting the phononic band gap has become one important goal in the study of phononic crystals for the design of new acoustic wave devices, but also for the next generation thermoelectric devices. Motivated by recent developments in achieving highly defined patterns in hybrid graphene - hexagonal boron nitride (G-hBN) materials [4,5] we investigate here the possibility of tuning the phononic band structure. Graphene and hBN are two structurally very similar materials, with a lattice mismatch of less than 2%, which makes them ideal to form binary composites. However, they have different electronic properties, graphene being a semimetal, while hBN a large band gap semiconductor. We consider periodic arrays of G-hBN, as 2D infinite planes and finite width nanoribbons, and analyze the phononic band gap tuning by changing the shapes of the G-hBN domains, by employing DFT calculations. Hollow graphene structures and allotropes of graphene [6] provide alternative routes for achieving 2D materials with tunable properties. The nanoribbon structures are investigated with a particular focus on reducing the phononic heat conductivity, which implies a larger figure of merit and therefore an improved thermoelectric conversion. [1] N. Zen, T. A. Puurtinen, T. J. Isotalo et al., Nature Communications 5, 3435 (2014). [2] M. Sigalas and E.N. Ecconomou, Elastic and Acoustic Wave Band Structure, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 158, 377-382 (1992). [3] M.S. Kushwaha, P. Halevi, L. Dobrzynski and B. Diafari-Rouhani, Acoustic Band Structure of Periodic Elastic Composites, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2022-2025 (1993). [4] Li Song, Lijie Ci, Hao Lu et al., Nanolett. 10, 3209 (2010). [5] Yongji Gong, Gang Shi, Zhuhua Zhang et al., Nature Communications 5, 3193 (2014). [6] A. L. Ivanovskii, Russ. Chem. Rev. 81, 571 (2012).

97

**Arthur Chaves**, University of Sao Paulo - USP, Institute of Mathematical and Computer Sciences - ICMC, Brazil

**Rodrigo La Scalea**, IFSP, , Brazil

**Adimara Colturato**, University of Sao Paulo - USP, Institute of Mathematical and Computer Sciences - ICMC, Brazil

**Celia Kawabata**, IFSP, , Brazil

**Edson Furtado**, Unesp, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Brazil

**Kalinka Castelo Branco**, University of São Paulo, Departament of Computer System, Brazil

**Abstract:**Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a very popular tool for remote sensing and crop monitoring. They are more easily deployed, cheaper and can obtain images with higher spatial-resolution than satellites. Some small, commercial UAVs can obtain images with spatial-resolution as low as 1.5cm per pixel. This opens up the range of possible remote sensing and monitoring applications. Moreover, they can cover large areas in very little time, such as 50 ha in about 20min, which makes UAVs the ideal tool for monitoring large farms and plantations. On the other hand, it is important to know precisely the area covered by farms in order to avoid invasion of other properties or preserved areas, and also to detect flaws in the plantation area. However, it is difficult to measure planted areas in some cases, such as Eucalyptus crops. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the use of UAV imagery for precise area measurement in Eucalyptus crops. We developed an image-processing algorithm to segment regions of soil, low biomass and high biomass and tested it on a Eucalyptus plantation in the city of Lençóis Paulista -SP, Brazil. Results show that the area quantification is very accurate especially for bare soil regions and this method can be used to estimate areas in other scenarios.

98

**Rihab Asmi**, National Engineering School of Tunis (ENIT), LPMS Laboratory of Photovoltaic and Semi-conductor Materials, Tunisia

**Abstract:**We theoretically investigate the spectral and light localization properties in one dimensional (1D) generalized Thue Morse quasi-periodic photonic structures. Here, we consider generalized Thue Morse sequences GTM(m,n,l) with inflation scheme L→L^m H^n H→H^n L^m Equivalently GTM (m,n,l) can be constructed as: S_0=L, S ̅_0=H S_(l+1)=S_l^m S ̅_l^n S ̅_(l+1)=S ̅_l^n S_l^m Theoretical analysis is performed by TMM (Transfer Matrix Method) algorithm to study the optical properties by simulating the electric field intensity. This method provides an analytical approach for calculation of wave propagation in multilayer media. We have shown that by varying m and n simultaneously in the generalized Thue-Morse structure, the electric field intensity varies according to the parity of these parameters and also according to the peak positions. We show that the whole structure GTM(m,n,l) has an interesting application for well selection pairs (m, n) values. So, the light localization depends strongly with m, n and l and for appropriate values maximum light localization was obtained

99

**Amos Anele**, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France, Electrical Engineering, France

**Abstract:**This paper presents the evaluation of the magnetic fields and mutual inductance between circular coils arbitrarily positioned in space. Firstly, based on an advanced and relevant model available in the literature, MATLAB code is implemented to evaluate the mutual inductance between circular coils arbitrarily positioned with respect to each other. The computed results are compared with the numerical results previously published in the literature and a detailed clarification regarding the huge computational errors made are presented. In the second part, a complex and relevant model available in the literature for evaluating the magnetic fields due to a circular coil is presented. Based on the useful information, the model for computing the magnetic fields between two circular coils is formulated. The computed results are validated with experimental measurements. The comparison of the results shows that the developed model and the experimental measurements conducted are accurate and effective.

100

**Joao Florindo**, University of Birmigham, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, United Kingdom

**Gabriel Landini**, University of Birmigham, , United Kingdom

**Humberto Almeida Filho**, Universidade de Sao Paulo, , Brazil

**Odemir Bruno**, Universidade de Sao Paulo, , Brazil

**Abstract:**Here we propose a method for the analysis of the stomata distribution patterns on the surface of plant leaves. We also investigate how light exposure during growth can affect stomata distribution and the plasticity of leaves. Understanding foliar plasticity (the ability of leaves to modify their structural organization to adapt to changing environmental resources) is a fundamental problem in Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Most published work on quantification of stomata has concentrated on descriptions of their density per unit of leaf area, however density alone does not provide a complete description of the problem and leaves several unanswered questions (e.g. whether the stomata patterns change across various areas of the leaf, or how the patterns change under varying observational scales). We used two approaches here, to know, Bouligand-Minkowski descriptors and complex networks, as a means to provide a description of the complexity of these distributions. In the experiments, we used 18 samples from the plant Tradescantia Zebrina grown under three different conditions (4 hours of artificial light each day, 24 hours of artificial light each day, and natural light) for a total of 69 days. The network descriptors were capable of correctly discriminating the different conditions in 88% of cases, while the fractal descriptors discriminated 83% of the samples. This is a significant improvement over the correct classification rates achieved when using only stomata density (56% of the samples).

101

**Thaína Tosta**, Federal University of Uberlandia, Faculty of Computing, Brazil

**Andrêssa de Abreu**, Federal University of Uberlândia, Faculty of Computing, Brazil

**Leandro Neves**, Sao Paulo State University, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Bruno Travençolo**, Federal University of Uberlândia, Faculty of Computing, Brazil

**Marcelo do Nascimento**, Federal University of Uberlandia, Faculty of Computing, Brazil

**Abstract:**Quantitative analysis of white blood cells in blood smear images offers important information about health conditions of patients to pathologists. Image processing techniques can be used to aid experts in detection of diseases and orientation to effective treatments. Identification of white blood cells is essential for their classification, making analysis even more accurate. This paper presents a method for detection of WBC applied on different channels of RGB, HSI, L*a*b and YIQ models. The best result was obtained with the channel H from HSI color model, wherein regions of interest were selected by the Otsu's thresholding method. A postprocessing step was applied using morphological operations, removal of small objects and region filling. The proposed system was tested on 367 images for analysis of its performance through Jaccard and Accuracy metrics, reaching results of 87.49% and 98.91%, respectively. Different channels of color models, already used in other studies in the literature, showed inferior results compared with the obtained in this work.

102

**Amos Anele**, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France, Electrical Engineering, France

**Abstract:**Wireless power transfer system is a modern technology which allows the transfer of electric power between the air-cored coils of its transformer via high frequency magnetic fields. However, due to its coil separation distance and misalignments, a maximum power transfer is not guaranteed. Based on a more efficient and general model available in the literature, rederived mathematical models for evaluating the mutual inductance between circular coils with and without lateral and angular misalignments are presented. Rather than presenting results numerically, the computed results are graphically implemented using MATLAB codes. The results are compared with the published ones and clarification regarding the errors made are presented. In conclusion, this study shows that power transfer efficiency of the system can be improved if a higher frequency alternating current is supplied to the primary coil, the reactive parts of the coils are compensated with capacitors and ferrite cores are added to the coils.

103

**Daria Apushkinskaya**, Saarland University, Mathematics, Germany

**Evgeny Apushkinskiy**, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Mikhail Astrov**, D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, , Russian Federation

**Abstract:**A problem on vortex behavior near oscillating pinning centers in the type III superconductors is considered. The oscillations can be caused by different reasons, for example, by the acoustic oscillations of a superconductor crystalline lattice. It is shown that under the assumption of strong external action, movement of a vortex filament can be described by a parabolic problem with a free boundary. In this case, an unknown free boundary is a-priory represented by the set of points, in which a transition from superconducting to normal state and vice versa occurs. A number of statements on the qualitative properties of a free boundary are derived from the general theory of such problems; thus, the properties of a phase boundary “superconductor - non-superconductor” are considered. The revealed mathematical regularities of free boundary behavior are transferred to the diffusion processes of superconducting carriers during vortex movement, carrier birth and annihilation.

104

**Amos Anele**, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France, Electrical Engineering, France

**Abstract:**One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single-phase and 22 kW three-phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

105

**jihene zaghdoudi**, ENIT-Tunis, GC, Tunisia

**Abstract:**The light propagation through a one-dimensional symmetric photonic structure which is mad of two dielectric materials of different refractive indices, which are arranged in a quasi-periodic sequence (Bg27/Sv4/Bg27) determined by the symmetric Silver mean (Sv4) distribution embedded between two Bragg structures (Bg27), is studied using the transfer matrix method (TMM). The focus lies on the investigation of the influence of symmetry of the structure as well as the dependence of the transmission on the frequency, the angle of incidence of the light striking the structure and the symmetrical deformation of the structure. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. A comparison will be made with a symmetrical periodic structure having the same number of layers. All results were discussed in relation with the k values. Indeed in the case of low k values near zero a monochromatic filter was obtained and in the case of relatively high values an omnidirectional mirror was obtained.

106

**Daria Apushkinskaya**, Saarland University, Mathematics, Germany

**Evgeny Apushkinskiy**, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Boris Popov**, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Vladimir Romanov**, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Vladimir Saveliev**, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Vladimir Sobolewski**, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Experimental Physics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The processes of minerals formation in geological environments are poorly understood because of their complexity and diversity. A complex multi-stage evolution of each natural minerals leads to the formation of various defects in the crystal lattice, i.e. to deviations from the ideal crystal structure. This presentation deals with the local defects in the minerals-silicates, which were formed as in the process of their growth, as under the influence of ionizing radiation. It is known that local defects, formed during the minerals growth are stable. Passing through the crystal lattice the ionizing radiation (e.g., elementary stream defined by the energy particles, gamma rays, etc.) interacts with it. The effects of radiation on the mineral can be expressed by heating of the crystal, breaking of some chemical bounds, redistribution of free electrons between lattice ions and impurities, and by formation of short-lived isotopes of chemical elements. The irradiation of the mineral outputs a crystalline structure of the energy balance and, thereby, contributes to the formation of defects within the structure. This type of defects is unstable. It is determined by the degradation of mechanical, electrical and other properties of silicates which limits their use. Unfortunately, there are no reliable criteria for identification of defects with natural and radiation background. To a large extent this is due to insufficient knowledge of the nature of point defects in aluminosilicates. The paper presents the results of investigation of the radiation-induces defects in fluorine aluminosilicates from the Volyn-field [Al2 (SiO4)-F, O (H)] by the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) method. The studies were conducted on the spectrometer “Bruker” ER 220D, in the temperature range 77-300 K, in X-frequency band. Three types of EPR spectra of single centers were obtained. Their angular dependence was also investigated. The obtained EPR spectra correspond to the model of the paramagnetic ion Fe3+ in the high-spin state S=5/2. Three types of paramagnetic centers were found: one with cubic-symmetry and two with orthorhombic-symmetries. The parameters of the spin-Hamiltonian are given in the table. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- g- factor | ΔH – the width of EPR line (Oe) | a- the constant of the fine structure (sm^{-1}) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2,004 | 64 | 113.10^{-4} ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2.022 | 68 | 616.10^{-4} ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2.040 | 103 | 697.10^{-4} ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The models of point defects forming in minerals as a result of neutron irradiation were given. It was shown that in tetrahedral complexes of SiO4 the substitution of silicon by the magnetic ion (Al, Fe, Cr, V) displacing from the tetrahedron center occur. The cause of the off-center position effect of the ions was discussed.

107

**Ludek Benes**, CTU Prague Fac. od Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Technical Mathematics, Czech Republic

**Hynek Reznicek**, CTU Prague, Dept. of Technical Mathematics, Czech Republic

**Viktor Sip**, CTU Prague, Dept. of Technical Mathematics, Czech Republic

**Abstract:**The article is devoted to the numerical simulation of the distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 particles emitted from the highway. The mathematical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for viscous incompressible turbulent flow simplified by the Boussinesq approximation. The transport equation for the passive pollutant is added. Resulting set of equations is then solved by the AUSM MUSCL scheme in the finite volume formulation. The time integration is performed by the BDF method of the second order with artificial compressibility in dual time. The atmosphere is supposed to be neutrally stratified. This scheme is used for modelling of process of distribution and deposition of the pollutants emitted from the highway. Various types of the protective forest barriers are studied in order to reduce dustiness in the selected regions.

108

**Matthew Fury**, Penn State Abington, Mathematics, United States

**Abstract:**We investigate regularization for the abstract Cauchy problem du/dt = Au, 0lomorphic semigroup on a Banach space X and x is an element of X. The problem is generally ill-posed as solutions do not depend continuously on the initial data. For example, letting -A be the Laplacian yields the backward heat equation. Although proximity to a solution may be lost when the initial data is perturbed, we prove that a known solution of the problem may be estimated via a small change in the operator A which yields an approximate well-posed problem. Research in this field has produced many effective approximations in both Hilbert space and Banach space including Lattes and Lions' quasi-reversibility method. Recently, as regularization has been sought for non-linear problems, authors have investigated perturbations with a less severe error order. For example, Bousetilla and Rebbani introduce a modified quasi-reversibility method where the approximate operator is defined by a logarithmic function. With this approach, we prove that the abstract Cauchy problem may be regularized via continuous dependence on modeling, that is a small change to the operator yielding a small change in the corresponding solutions. The theory applies to partial differential equations, particularly the backward heat equation. In future work, we intend to extend our study to non-linear ill-posed problems in Banach space.

109

**Adrian Sotomayor**, Antofagasta University, Mathematics, Chile

**Alvaro Restuccia**, Antofagasta University, Physics Department, Chile

**Luis Cortés Vega**, Antofagasta University, Mahematical Department, Chile

**Abstract:**The Born-Infeld action is a non linear modification of the Maxwell theory. It describes the physics of the fields on a D-brane and hence it is related by duality to the dynamics of a membrane evolving in a Minkowski space-time of dimension greater than 3. In this paper we study the infinite sequence of conserved quantities of the theory and its hamiltonian structure in the simplest 1+1 case.

110

**Asher Yahalom**, Ariel University, Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Israel

**Abstract:**It is stated in many text books that the any metric appearing in general relativity should be locally Lorentzian i.e. of the type gµν = diag(1,−1,−1,−1) this is usually presented as an independent axiom of the theory, which cannot be deduced from other assumptions. The meaning of this assertion is that a specific coordinate (the temporal coordinate) is given a unique significance with respect to the other spatial coordinates. It was shown that the above assertion is a consequence of requirement that the metric of empty space should be linearly stable and need not be assumed [1-6]. In this work we remove the empty space assumption and investigate the consequences of matter on the stability of Lorentzian space-time. Bibliography [1] Asher Yahalom "The Geometrical Meaning of Time" [“The Linear Stability of Lorentzian Space-Time” Los-Alamos Archives - gr-qc/0602034, gr-qc/0611124] Foundations of Physics http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10701-008-9215-3 Volume 38, Number 6, Pages 489-497 (June 2008). [2] Asher Yahalom "The Gravitational Origin of the Distinction between Space and Time" International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 18, Issue: 14, pp. 2155-2158 (2009). DOI: 10.1142/S0218271809016090. [3] Asher Yahalom "Gravity and the Complexity of Coordinates in Fisher Information" International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 19, No. 14 (2010) 2233–2237, © World Scientific Publishing Company DOI: 10.1142/S0218271810018347. [4] Asher Yahalom "The geometrical meaning of time - the emergence of the concept of time in the general theory of relativity" a chapter in a book "Advances in Classical Field Theory", Bentham eBooks eISBN: 978-1-60805-195-3, 2011. http://www.bentham.org/ebooks/9781608051953/index.htm. [5] Asher Yahalom “On the Difference between Time and Space” Cosmology 2014, Vol. 18. 466-483. Cosmology.com. [6] Asher Yahalom “The Geometrical Meaning of Time - Some Cosmological Implications” Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE 2014), 28–31 August 2014, Madrid, Spain. Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP Publishing), Volume 574, 012061, 2015. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/574/1/012061.

111

**Montserrat Carles-Fariña**, University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Germany

**Tobias Fechter**, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Germany

**Ursula Nestle**, University Hospital Freiburg, , Germany

**Abstract:**The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a contrast-oriented (COA) seed-based segmentation algorithm for tumor delineation in retrospectively gated (4D-)PET images of lung cancer lesions. In order to identify the main degrading factors, we analyze the dependence of volume accuracy with respect different parameters and therefore, an enhanced version of the algorithm is proposed and evaluated. For the analysis, the algorithm is applied in 4D-PET acquisitions for 8 lung cancer patients. The consensus of three manual contours is established as the gold standard. With the Dice Similarity Coefficient we measure the volume accuracy of the algorithm with respect to the gold standard (DSCA) and moreover, we measure the variability among the 3 experts (DSCE). DSCA/DSCE is employed to evaluate the dependence of algorithm response with respect: lesion activity concentration (ATmean),homogeneity (1/COVT ) and volume (VT ), derived from the consensus; background activity concentration (Bgmean) and homogeneity (1/COVBg), derived from the volume surrounding the lesion; and target-to-background ratio (TBR). In the enhanced algorithm, the mean activity derived from the segmented volume is applied as an input for a new threshold-volume computation. For its evaluation, the 3 patients with statistically significant discrepancy between DSCA and DSCE are employed. The analysis results in an average of algorithm volume accuracy over the patients, DSCA=0.71±0.08, that is within the variability obtained among experts, DSCE=0.78±0.07. However, DSCA/DSCE has shown a linear correlation with ATmean,1/COVT and VT : r=-0.827, r=0.750 and r=0.714, respectively. The proposed method has reported and average volume accuracy improvement of 25± 3%. In conclusion, the initial algorithm has shown good performance on average, but degrading response for increasing lesion volume, activity and heterogeneity. The enhanced version has shown to minimize this effect in a preliminary evaluation. It motivates a future validation with a larger number of patients to confirm the improvement and to identify the values of activity, heterogeneity and volume for its automatic application.

112

**Nicola Piana Agostinetti**, Dublin Istitute for Advanced Studies, Geophysics Section, School of Cosmic Physics, Ireland

**Thomas Bodin**, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, United States

**Thomas Bodin**, Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, United States

**Abstract:**Trans-dimensional (trans-D) algorithms have been recently introduced to the earth sciences to solve inverse problems without having to impose a fixed spatial structure to the model parametrization (e.g. a fixed number of layers in a 1D structure). Trans-D algorithms are usually implemented in a Bayesian framework, i.e. where the solution is a full probability density function of the unknown parameters, rather than a single “best-fiting” model. This posterior probability density function is usually approximated by sampling the parameter space with Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) algorithms, where the sampled models are asymptotically distributed as the target distribution (i.e. the posterior probability distribution). It has been demonstrated that trans-D algorithms contain an in-build “Occam's razor”. Thus, they show a parsimonious behavior, i.e. between two models that explain equally well the data, the model with fewer parameters will have a higher posterior probability. This fact guarantees that the model complexity is completely dictated by data and not by subjective choices (like damping and smoothing parameters), avoiding the introduction of any artifacts. Trans-dimensional algorithms can be easily used for joint inversion of different data-set using a “Hierarchical Bayes” approach. Solving the joint inverse problem using a “Hierarchical Bayes” approach allows one to estimate the magnitude of the data error for each data-set thus avoiding the use of subjective weights to “balance” the contribution of each data-set to the solution. In the simplest case of joint inversion, two different observables concur to the reconstruction of the same physical parameter. In more complex cases, two observables are used to investigate the structure of two physical parameters, sharing the same structure. In the latter cases, however, some difficulties arise if the two observables display very different resolving power. In this case, the structure of the target solution might be twisted toward one observable, introducing non resolved (i.e. over-complex) structure for the other investigated parameters. In this study, we develop a trans-D algorithm for joint inversion of two different data-sets to reconstruct the 1D structure of two different physical parameters. The 1D structure for the two parameters can be completely coupled (i.e. the two physical properties share the same layering) or completely decoupled, or a mixture. In this way, the “parsimony” of the trans-D algorithm produces common discontinuities (a “coupled” structure) for portions of the 1D profile where the two observables displays similar resolving power, while the two reconstructed 1D structures will be different (i.e. the two structure are “decoupled”) where the two observables have different resolving power. The algorithm is tested using a classical geophysical inverse problems. We apply the trans-D algorithm to a simple “changepoints” problem. We analyse the time-variation of S-wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast-axis directions) during a seismic sequence to highlight when such parameters changed in time.

113

**ILIAS TOLIAS**, National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Greece, , Greece

**ALEXANDROS VENETSANOS**, Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research, Demokritos, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attikis, Greece, , Greece

**NIKOLAOS MARKATOS**, National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Greece, , Greece

**CHRIS KIRANOUDIS**, National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Greece, , Greece

**Abstract:**Hydrogen is a very promising alternative fuel which is expected to play a significant role in the near future. However, significant safety issues are associated with it. In the case of an accidental release, hydrogen mixes with air and can form a flammable mixture over a wide range of concentrations. In the present work, CFD simulations of hydrogen deflagration in a medium scale vented room are performed. The room is filled with homogeneous hydrogen-air mixture of 18% v/v. The combustion model is based on the turbulent flame speed concept. The turbulent flame speed is a modification of Yakhot’s equation, in order to account for all the main physical mechanisms which appear in hydrogen deflagrations. Special attention is given to the modeling of the external explosion. The overpressure time series inside and outside of the enclosure are compared with the experimental results. The flame front position is also compared with the experimental data. Good agreement with the experiment is observed.

114

**ILIAS GATOS**, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Medical Physics, , Greece

**STAVROS TSANTIS**, TEI of Athens, Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Maria Karamesini**, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Medical Physics, Greece

**Katerina Skouroliakou**, Technological Education Institute of Athens, Energy Technology Engineering, Greece

**George Kagadis**, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Medical Physics, Greece

**Abstract:**Purpose: The design and implementation of a computer-based image analysis system employing the support vector machine (SVM) classifier system for the classification of Focal Liver Lesions (FLLs) on routine non-enhanced, T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance(MR) images. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 92 patients; each one of them has undergone MRI performed on a Magnetom Concerto (Siemens). Typical signs on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and biopsies were employed towards a three class categorization of the 92 cases: 40-benign FLLs, 25-Hepatocellular Carcinomas(HCC) within Cirrhotic liver parenchyma and 27-liver metastases from Non-Cirrhotic liver. Prior to FLLs classification an automated lesion segmentation algorithm based on Marcov Random Fields was employed in order to acquire each FLL Region of Interest. 42 texture features derived from the gray-level histogram, co-occurrence and run-length matrices and 12 morphological features were obtained from each lesion. Stepwise multi-linear regression analysis was utilized to avoid feature redundancy leading to a feature subset that fed the multiclass SVM classifier designed for lesion classification. SVM System evaluation was performed by means of leave-one-out method and ROC analysis. Results: Maximum accuracy for all three classes (90.0%) was obtained by means of the Radial Basis Kernel Function and three textural features (Inverse-Different-Moment, Sum-Variance and Long-Run-Emphasis) that describe lesion’s contrast, variability and shape complexity. Sensitivity values for the three classes were 92.5%, 81.5% and 96.2% respectively, whereas specificity values were 94.2%, 95.3% and 95.5%. The AUC value achieved for the selected subset was 0.89 with 0.81 – 0.94 confidence interval. Conclusion: The proposed SVM system exhibit promising results that could be utilized as a second opinion tool to the radiologist in order to decrease the time/cost of diagnosis and the need for patients to undergo invasive examination.

115

**Joanna Staneva**, HZG, Institute for Coastal Research, Germany

**Abstract:**The ocean wave and circulation modelling has shown impressive developments, both on the theoretical aspects as in the quality of the results available to users. The state-of the art development of the WAM wave model for forecasts applications at operational services and for hind-casts and climate assessments for the North Sea and the German Bight is presented. The ocean waves control the exchange of energy, momentum, heat, moisture, gas, etc. between the ocean and the atmosphere in the earth system. Therefore this study addresses also the coupling between wave and circulation models. This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales. The uncertainties in most of the presently used models result from the nonlinear feedback between strong tidal currents and wind-waves, which can no longer be ignored, in particular in the coastal zone where its role seems to be dominant. A nested modelling system is used to producing reliable now- and short-term forecasts of ocean state variables, including wind waves and hydrodynamics. Issues of downscaling, data assimilation, atmosphere-wave-ocean couplings and ecosystem dynamics in the coastal ocean are discussed. The synergy between observations and models is increased on the road to improving the ocean state estimate and predictions in the coastal areas and generating up-to-date information, products and knowledge. Sea state reconstructions and climate scenarios computations have created a huge interest to use the data in industrial applications.

116

**Kian Mehravaran**, IASS-Potsdam, E3 Cluster, Germany

**Abstract:**Decarbonization of Methane via injection of Methane bubbles in a catalytic medium such as liquid tin holds certain promise in the area of Hydrogen production as it is a CO2-free approach to combustion. In this study, numerical solutions to the conservation equations of energy and concentration are sought in spherical coordinates, with the assumption of polar and azimuthal symmetry. Moreover, the fluid mechanics of the rising and deforming bubble is captured by detailed, 3-D, VOF calculations and linked with the energy and concentration calculations. A comprehensive kinetic mechanism is considered for Methane, including the catalytic surface reaction at the interface of the bubble and the liquid metal. Multi-component diffusion is considered for the calculation of the diffusion velocities of individual species. The resulting system of ODEs are solved by the CVODE stiff system of ODEs solver. Validation of the solution for constant properties and no chemical reaction has been performed and the results match the analytical solution of the diffusion equation to within a few percentages. Experiments are performed as well and in a heated, liquid-tin column. Apart from the overall agreement seen in the values of Hydrogen mole fraction, there is a surprisingly well match between the measured and predicted values of the minor species Ethene.

117

**Piotr Kopka**, National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), EJ, Poland

**Abstract:**In many areas of application, a central problem is a solution of the inverse problem, especially estimation of the unknown model parameters to model the underlying dynamics of a physical system precisely. In this situation, the Bayesian inference is a powerful tool to combine observed data with prior knowledge to gain the probability distribution of searched parameters. We have applied the modern methodology named Sequential Approximate Bayesian Computation (S-ABC) to the problem of tracing the atmospheric contaminant source. The ABC is technique commonly used in the Bayesian analysis of complex models and dynamic system. Sequential methods can significantly increase the efficiency of the ABC. In the presented algorithm, the input data are the on-line arriving concentrations of released substance registered by distributed sensor network from OVER-LAND ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION (OLAD) experiment. The algorithm output are the probability distributions of a contamination source parameters i.e. its particular location, release rate, speed and direction of the movement, start time and duration. The stochastic approach presented in this paper is completely general and can be used in other fields where the parameters of the model bet fitted to the observable data should be found.

118

**Nicola Magnani**, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Germany

**Abstract:**The electronic properties of actinide-based materials have been the focus of extensive investigations, and especially the hidden-ordered ground states forming at low temperatures proved to be an extremely challenging research subject. The richness of 5f-electron physics can be attributed to the multiple degrees of freedom activated through the simultaneous presence of strong spin-orbit coupling and on-site Coulomb interactions. These conditions are in particular met in the actinide dioxides, which have provided a treasure trove of a rich variety of multiorbital physics over many years. Here, the results of ab-initio calculations of their ground states within the LDA+U framework are used to describe the behaviour of the different active electric and magnetic multipoles. In agreement with experimental observations, the nonmagnetic state of plutonium dioxide is computed to be insulating, whereas those of uranium and neptunium dioxides require symmetry breaking to reproduce the insulator ground states, a condition which is met with magnetic phase transitions. The magnetic properties of the latter compounds in the ordered phase are studied by mean-field random phase approximation calculations, emphasizing the importance of multipolar superexchange interactions. Finally, the main findings of these theoretical analysis are discussed against the results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Together, these provide a consistent description of the hidden-order phase of neptunium dioxide in terms of higher-rank magnetic multipole ordering and emphasize that quadrupolar waves constitute a major component of the dynamics of uranium dioxide.

119

**Eugen Anitas**, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The small-angle scattering form factor of a three-dimensional idealized fragmentation model based on the concept of renormalization is calculated. The system consists of randomly oriented microscopic fractal objects whose positions are uncorellated. It is shown that in the fractal region, the form factor is characterized by a succesion of maxima and minima superimposed on a simple power-law decay, and whose scattering exponent coincide with the fractal dimension of the scatterer. The present analysis of the scattering form factor allows us to obtain the fractal iteration number. The results could be used to obtain additional structural information about systems obtained through fragmentation processes at microscale.

120

**Spiros Kostopoulos**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Antonis Savva**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Pantelis Asvestas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Christos Nikolopoulos**, National Technical University of Athens, School of School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Greece

**Christos Capsalis**, National Technical University of Athens, School of School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Greece

**Dionisis Cavouras**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Abstract:**Microwave radiometry (MWR) for noninvasive temperature imaging is based on near-field power reception and has been proposed for early cancer detection by estimating the internal body temperature distribution [1]. The measurement of a radiometer (also known as brightness temperature - Tb) is considered to emanate as the weighting average over the antenna’s field of view, of the real core temperature (T) multiplied by a weighting function (W); W depends on the antenna properties as well as tissue characteristics [2]. The aim of the present study is to provide a methodology for detection and visualization of alterations in internal body temperature, based on single channel microwave radiometer imaging. In order to obtain Tb measurements a simulation study was conducted that modeled a./ the human breast, as an hemisphere of homogeneous tissue, b./ the temperature distribution (T) by means of a Butterworth function, and c./ the antenna characteristics (W) according to [3]. Moreover, a simulated lesion was employed of variable size and position, to provide for slight temperature changes inside the breast. The inverse problem solution, meaning finding the temperature distribution T from the simulated data Tb, was approached by assuming that the temperature distribution is the mixture of distributions with unknown parameters. The values of the parameters values were determined by means of the least squares method in conjunction with the singular value decomposition method. The proposed method was validated in a variety of scenarios by altering the lesion size and location, the radiometer position with and without presence of noise. The method proved capable in identifying alterations in different parts of the breast. The visualization was performed with 2-D images in the form of thermal maps, where the temperature distribution in the coronal plane was imaged. References 1.R. Scheeler et al., (2014), Sensing depth of microwave radiation for internal body temperature measurement, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 62: 1293-1303. 2.J.W. Hand et al., (2001), Monitoring of deep brain temperature in infants using multi-frequency microwave radiometry and thermal modelling, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 46: 1885-1903. 3.C.A. Balanis, (2012), Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons. Acknowledgements The research activities that led to these work, were co-financed by National Funds and by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Hellenic National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013, concerning the project “MMRIBTM” with ref. number (12CHN181) within the Bilateral Cooperation between Greece & China action.

121

**Evgeny Proutorov**, Cherepovets State University, Chair of Physics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**In recent years, study of the surface of different polymer structures have been acquired not only theoretical but also practical meaning because their unique engineering characteristics. On the one hand, the solution of the problem concerning the adsorption of macromolecules on different interfaces creates a base for development of the theory of surface properties of polymers [1, 2]. On the other hand, today’s society is having the most important technical and economic problems, the corrosion control of metals and other materials. One of the effective methods for protection of metal production from corrosion is the development of polymer coverings of different types (e.g., polyvinylidene fluoride, polyurethane, et al.) depending on their physical-chemical characteristics, the decorative properties and conditions of its using. The quality of polymer coatings is determined, first of all, by its durability, adhesion, resistance to aggressive external environment and also by strength, which as mainly depends on the degree of orientational order of the macromolecules in the layer [3]. These properties of the polymer coating depend on the method of its formation and the chemical modification of the polymer [4]. The high efficiency of the polymer coating is achieved only by the proper choice of thermal and other conditions during the formation of its structure. The aim of this work is to study only the initial stage of physical and chemical processes by the formation of the structure of polymer coating, namely, the creation of a primer adhesive layer after the application of monomer paint solution on the steel sheet before to the polymerization. In this work, by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo method for the modified lattice Langmuir’s model of adsorption, the time dependences of the sticking coefficient of monomers on the surface of the steel for the same and different heating rates of the metal sheet and different given values of the interaction constant of the monomers and the energy barrier are calculated. It’s shown that there is an optimum temperature regime at which there is the greatest adhesion monomer coating on the surface of the metal sheet. The simulation results are confirmed by experimental data [4] on study of adhesion strength of the primer layer from the poly-vinyl-butyral on the surface of steel sheet. References [1] Karim A, Kumar S 2000 Polymer Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films (Singapore–World Science). [2] Maksimov AV and Pavlov GM 2007 Polymer Science A 49 828 [3] Maksimov AV and Gotlib YuYa Polymer Science A 34 902. [4] Yilgor I 2013 Proc. 12-th Int.Conf. “Polymers in advanced technologies”(Berlin) p 34. [5] Yakovlev АD 2008 Chemistry and technology of paint coatings (St.Petersburg–Chemistry)

122

**John Pickton**, University of Nottingham, Mathematical Sciences, United Kingdom

**Abstract:**Periodic behaviours can be described with great power and economy using the simple mathematical machinery associated with wave phenomena. However periodic effects can also be ‘observed’ in collections of discrete objects, be they individuals sending emails, fire-flies signalling to attract mates, synapses firing in the brain or photons emerging from a cavity. The identification and origin of what constitutes the wave-like property becomes more difficult to interpret and identify in these instances but can be most simply exemplified by consideration of non-interacting particles moving randomly on a network forming N nodes in a closed loop. Specifically the population dynamics describing the number of particles at a node is a familiar stochastic birth-death process, augmented by particles jumping randomly at rate r to adjacent nodes in either direction. This can result in the emergence of periodic behaviours which occur because of the interaction between the dynamics of the particles and the spatial structure through which they move. For this to happen we show that the network must consist of three or more nodes and the particles must have a preferred direction of jumping. Moreover there are three very different classes of collective behaviour of the populations at the nodes which emerge depending on the value of the birth-rate m. The first occurs when 0

123

**Luiz Henrique Castelo Branco**, IFSP, , Brazil

**Abstract:**Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS is a set of integrated technologies (Remote Sensing, Image Processing, Machine Learning, Control and Communications Systems and related areas) that aim to offer services and advanced traffic management for the several transportation modes like: road, air and rail. Collect data on the characteristics and conditions of the road surface and keep them up to date is an important and difficult task that needs to be currently managed by intelligent transport systems, for example in order to reduce accidents and vehicle maintenance costs. Nowadays several roads and highways are paved, but usually there is insufficient updated data on your current condition and status. There are different types of pavement defects on the roads and to keep in good condition should be constantly monitored and maintained according to pavement management strategy. This paper proposes a methodology to obtain, automatically, information about the conditions of the highway asphalt pavement. Data collection will be done through remote sensing using a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology and the image processing and pattern recognition techniques through Geographic Information System and Gaussian process.

124

**STELLA GIANNISSI**, NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH "DEMOKRITOS", ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, Greece

**ALEXANDROS VENETSANOS**, Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research, Demokritos, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attikis, Greece, , Greece

**NIKOLAOS MARKATOS**, National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Greece, , Greece

**Abstract:**The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open-obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated either using the algebraic slip model or by solving the momentum conservation equation for the liquid phase. Different droplet size distributions and a constant diameter model are applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

125

**Geraldo Zafalon**, São Paulo State University - Unesp, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**João Visotaky**, São Paulo State University - Unesp, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Anderson Amorim**, São Paulo State University, Department of Computer Science and Statistic, Brazil

**Carlos Valêncio**, São Paulo State University - Unesp, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Leandro Neves**, São Paulo State University - Unesp, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Rogéria De Souza**, São Paulo State University - Unesp, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**José Machado**, São Paulo State University - Unesp, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Brazil

**Abstract:**The computational tools to assist genomic analyzes show even more necessary due to fast increasing of data amount available. Thus, the sequence alignment plays an important role in bioinformatics, where obtained results might assist in analyzes and inferences over data achieved. With high computational costs of deterministic algorithms for sequence alignments, many works concentrate their efforts in the development of heuristic approaches to multiple sequence alignments. Heuristics as Progressive Alignment, Ant Colony, Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithms are between the most used ones in multiple sequence alignment tools. However, the selection of an approach which offers solutions with good biological significance and feasible execution time is a great challenge. Thus, this work aims to show the parallelization of the processing steps of MSA-GA tool using multithread paradigm in the execution of COFFEE objective function. The MSA-GA is a tool to perform multiple sequence alignments based on simple genetic algorithm and uses an objective function to check the biological significance of the final alignments. The standard objective function implemented in the tool is the Weighted Sum of Pairs (WSP), which produces some distortions in the final alignments when sequences sets with low similarity are aligned. Then, in studies previously performed we implemented the COFFEE objective function in the tool to smooth these distortions. Although the nature of COFFEE objective function implies in the increasing of execution time, this approach presents points which can be executed in parallel. With the improvements implemented in this work, we can verify the execution time of new approach is 24% faster than the sequential approach with COFFEE. Moreover, the COFFEE multithreaded approach is more efficient than WSP, because besides it is slightly fast, its biological results are better.

126

**Stylianos Karozis**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Athanassios Sfetsos**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Diamanto Vlachogianni**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Gibraltar

**Michael Kainourgiakis**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Nikolaos Gounaris**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Abstract:**Environmental informatics presently is merely the way to link meteorology and pollution sources to population exposure and determine the impact on human health. More importantly, it is a decision aiding tool for local authorities to predict potential atmospheric pollution problems, optimize actions and policy making activities so as to produce the maximum health benefit. The present work, describes the on-going efforts of NSRD to build a cyber-infrastructure for climatic research management (CCRM) that will essentially contribute to the planning, development, maintenance and coordination of NCSRD systems to help process and disseminate climate related information. The foreseen actions will aid NCSRD to develop and establish a long term sustainable data centre, hosting the data generated in the various R&D activities. CCRM is envisioned as a service-oriented, open-source, web-based network of climate research outcome, pollutant emissions, data repositories and existing and new data analysis tools. CCRM will focus on the following main areas relevant to climatic research: 1. Air quality modeling, 2. Data analysis, and forecasting; 3. Emissions inventory development and assessment; 4. Use of satellite and ground-based remote sensing information; 5. Scientific visualization; 6. Communication of air quality data to decision-makers and the public; 7. Service-oriented architecture and software development CCRM could additionally provide data hosting and access services to user groups from other relevant infrastructures in the Region, complemented with data from other relevant networks. Acknowledgment This work has been partially funded by FP7-316173 ENTEC project. References 1. Dumitrescu A., Busuioc A., Madalina B., Cheval S., Cazacioc L., “RCM performance in reproducing temperature and precipitation regime in Romania. Application for Banat and Oltenia Plains”, Water Core Meeting Romania, 05 – 07 October 2011 2. Seiler C., Implementation and validation of a Regional Climate Model for Bolivia, Fundacion Amigos de la Naturaleza (FAN-Bolivia), July 2009 3. Stull, R. (2000) “Meteorology for Scientists and Engineers”. Brooks/Cole

127

**Lukas Valasek**, Institute of Informatics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, DNMA, Slovakia

**Abstract:**Current program systems based on the knowledge of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) allow to model the course of fire and its effects on structure and building equipment. This paper deals with comparison of serial and parallel simulation of a corridor fire by the FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) system. In parallel realization of the computation, the whole computational domain is divided into computational meshes and computation on each computation mesh is considered as a single MPI (Message Passing Interface) process realised on one computer core. Communication between MPI processes is provided by MPI. Since such procedure causes errors at touches of computational meshes, the aim of this paper is to determine the size of error of simulation results due to parallel computation.

128

**Stylianos Karozis**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Nikolaos Papadimitriou**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Philip Borbadonakis**, University of Crete, Chemistry, Greece

**Georgia Charalambopoulou**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Michael Kainourgiakis**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Abstract:**Ceramides bilayers constitute the lipid domain of stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. The biological importance of the specific system arises from the fact that it has major contribution to the barrier function of the skin. The development of modelling approaches for the study of skin permeability is of great importance for the drug and cosmetic industry, as it can reduce but also complement experiments, but demands the molecular study of very large domains of the actual structure. In order to study larger system with molecular dynamics techniques, functional groups are represented by coarse particles rather than individual atoms. The use of a coarse grained force field relies on less detail than a traditional atomistic (all-atom or united-atom) force field. This enables us to simulate easily yet realiably larger system and study phenomena which evolve at different length scales, such as the diffusion etc. In this work, we attempt to model a typical fully hydrated ceramide bilayer, consisting of 128 molecules of CER NS 24:0, with MARTINI [1], a coarse grain forcefield suitable for molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecular systems. For determining the accurate representation of the ceramide bilayer, we compare the resulting system with the equivalent obtained from atomistic scale simulations [2] on the basis of a series of characteristic structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties, such as: bilayer thickness, density profiles along the bilayer normal, area per lipid, order parameters, radial distribution functions. The system under investigation is a All simulations are carried out at 300 K and 1 bar using four MARTINI parametrizations, considering that presently there are no optimized MARTINI [3,4] input values, specifically parameterized for ceramides. The atomistic forcefields that are used to evaluate the coarse grain process performance are OPLS-UA, GROMOS, BERGER, CHARMM, GAFF. Acknowledgement This work has been partially funded by the Greek Scholarship Foundation (IKY) for a doctoral scholarship under the IKY- Siemens program. References 1. Marrink, S. J., de Vries, A. H., & Mark, A. E. Coarse Grained Model for Semiquantitative Lipid Simulations. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108(2), 750–760, 2004. 2. Papadimitriou, N. I., Kainourgiakis, M. E., Karozis, S. N., & Charalambopoulou, G. C. Studying the structure of single-component ceramide bilayers with molecular dynamics simulations using different force fields. Molecular Simulation, 1–15, 2014. 3. C.A. Lopez, Z. Sovova, F.J. van Eerden, A.H. de Vries, S.J. Marrink. Martini force field parameters for glycolipids.; J. Chem. Theory Comput., 9, 1694-1708, 2013. 4. Yin Wang, Paraskevi Gkeka, Susanne von Grafenstein, Julian E. Fuchs, Roland G. Huber, Zoe Cournia, Klaus R. Liedl. Parameterization of a Coarse-Grained Model for Ceramides, in preparation, 2013.

129

**Kostas Psannis**, University of Macedonia, Applied Informatics, Greece

**Abstract:**Nowadays users are demanding continuous delivery of increasingly higher data over the Internet, in both wired and wireless networks. Due to its real-time nature, wireless data delivery typically has bandwidth, delay and loss requirements. Moreover, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new standard developed to cope with future mobile data and emerging media applications. The generic characteristics of wireless networks are time-varying and their performance is generally inferior to those of wired networks. Therefore, it is still a challenging problem to efficiently provide data delivery service of high quality over 4G LTE Wireless Networks. However, for wireless data delivery in LTE, higher data rate could lead to higher packet loss rate, thus degrading the user’s Quality of Experience (QoE). Generally, wireless communication systems should support a large number of users with flexibility in their quality of service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE). The challenges to ensure the fulfillment of these requirements arise from the limited availability of frequency spectrum, and the nature of the wireless channel. To solve this issue, intelligent radio resource algorithms interacting in both the physical and the application layers are critical. Radio resource allocation are categorized into two major classes with different objectives The objective of the first class is to minimize the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates whereas in the second class, the objective is to maximize the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates. In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

130

**Philippe Beltrame**, Université d'Avignon, UMR1114 EmmaH, France

**Abstract:**The present work was motivated by a micro-pumping device allowing particle sorting depending on their size or mass. A pore periodic lattice filled of liquid and suspended particles is connected at both ends to basins. A periodic pumping is applied leading to a periodic driving flow. Depending on the pressure oscillations (amplitude and frequency) a net motion of the particles appears. This particle drift was interpreted as a ratchet effect called drift ratchet in literature: inertialess advecting particle under Brownian fluctuation in an asymmetric geometry. In contrast, we focus on an axisymmetric deterministic model with particles of small inertia in a creeping flow. The particle drag force is computed using Boundary Element Method and we show that a non-linear ODE governs the particle motion. Path-following method is employed in the parameter space in order to retrace the scenario that leads from trivial periodic solutions to particle transport. Under appropriate conditions, particles may drift and two main transport mechanisms are identified. For very small inertia, quasi-periodic transport occurs. We show that this dynamics is similar to the phase drift during a loss of synchronization of a periodic oscillator under weak external periodic force. In contrast, for moderate small inertia, the transport threshold involves a chaotic dynamics and strange attractors. Finally, we relate the different transport mechanisms with the pore shape and the pumping kind.

131

**Madalina Vlad**, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Theory Group, Romania

**Abstract:**We present an analytical self-consistent approach, which is able to analyze the processes that appear in the nonlinear stage of turbulence. The statistical characteristics of the turbulence and of the transport are evaluated as functions of time. The results concern drift turbulence in confined plasmas, but possible extensions to other physical systems are discussed. The method is essentially based on a combined study of test particle and test modes in turbulent plasmas. We show that the main cause of the nonlinear processes that appear beyond the quasilinear stage of turbulence is trajectory trapping or eddying. The requirements for modeling these processes are deduced. Trapping introduces quasi-coherent aspects in test trajectory statistics, which lead to large scale correlations (inverse cascade), nonlinear damping of the drift modes and generation of the zonal flows.

132

**João Alves**, University Federal of Juiz de Fora, Computational Modeling, Brazil

**Rodrigo dos Santos**, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Computer Science, Brazil

**Rafael de Queiroz**, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Computer Science, Brazil

**Abstract:**This paper presents a mathematical and computational model that characterizes the spatio-temporal dynamics of blood perfusion in cardiac myocardium. Specifically, we are interested in reproducing qualitative images obtained by contrast-enhanced exams, which are widely used in clinical medicine to evaluate the blood perfusion in the heart. The application of contrast allows the detection of injuries, ischemic regions, fibrosis or tumors. Here we focus on the pathological case associated to subendocardial infarct, which physiological characteristic is a reduced rate of myocardial irrigation by blood (and by implication, lack of oxygen and nutrients for tissue). In our modeling, we will consider the tissue of cardiac myocardium as a porous media, i.e. a solid region with empty spaces. To this end, the modeling was based on differential equations and Darcy's Law, which correlates tissue permeability (low, in the case of a subendicardial infarct), pressure difference and the blood flow in the cardiac tissue. In addition, the work domain is a transversal slice of myocardium.

133

**Maksimov Andrei**, Cherepovets State University, Chair of Physics, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**The problem of corrosion is relevant in all civilized countries. One of the effective methods of solving this problem is application of polymer coating on the steel sheets. In this paper, protective properties of the polymer films are discussed. Peculiarities of the macroscopic characteristics of different polymers are primarily related with a geometric anisotropy of the constituting macromolecules. The results of the research, obtained by the NMR, EPR, polarized luminescence etc. methods, show that the conductivity the ordering, and mobility of fragments of polymer chains may be sensitive indicators of the structural configuration of these systems [1, 2]. Simulation has been performed by means of the Monte-Carlo method on the base of the three-dimensional lattice model of polymer system with orientation interactions [3]. Initially, a configuration of the polymer system is calculated by Metropolis algorithm taking into account their internal structure (constants of intermolecular interactions), temperature regime and quality of metal. Next, for study of the conductivity, the motion of charged particles within the proposed lattice model is investigated taking into account the calculated configuration. The interaction energy of the oxygen with the neighboring eight units of the polymer chains and electric double layer on metallic surface were being accounted. The movement of charged particles was calculated according to the laws of statistical physics and based on checking energy advantage of its position. The developed method allows to calculate the number of charged particles passing through the polymer film and reaching to the surface of the metal sheet. The dependences of conductivity on temperature, film thickness, and the distance between the molecular layers are obtained. It is shown that there is an optimum density of a given film thickness at which it is protecting. The adequacy of the developed mathematical models and theoretical curves has been verified by comparison with the data of laboratory and production testing. References [1] Sanchez IC and Fitzpatrick LE 1992 Physics of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces. (Boston– Butterworth-Heinemann) [2] Karim A, Kumar S 2000 Polymer Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films (Singapore–World Science). [3] Petrova TO, Maksimova OG, Maksimov AV, Nastuljavichus AA, Baruzdina OS, Baidganov AA 2013 Proceedings of the NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo (Washington– NSTI-Nanotech.)

134

**Nikolaos Papadimitriou**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Stylianos Karozis**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Michael Kainourgiakis**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Georgia Charalambopoulou**, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Environmental Research Laboratory, Greece

**Abstract:**The target of this work is to study the transport properties of a lipid membrane whose major component are ceramides. This type of lipid membrane is mostly found in the skin inter-cellular domain. Such membranes present very special transport properties (permeability, diffusivity) so as to determine the entire barrier function of the skin. In this context, we have performed several series of Molecular Dynamics simulations in order to examine the membrane penetration mechanism. The use of computational infrastructure based on GPUs has allowed the simulations to be performed at a fully atomistic level with a time scale in the order of 1 μs. The first substance to be studied is water. In this case, we have studied the diffusion of water under non-equilibrium conditions (e.g. melting of the membrane and channel formation through the membrane) since water can hardly penetrate the membrane under physiological conditions. In a second stage, the work is extended to also cover amphiphile molecules (e.g. aminobenzoate esters) that are more likely to find a penetration pathway through the membrane. Diffusion is studied in both directions: parallel and perpendicular to the bilayer. In the former case the motion of the penetrating molecules in confined between two consecutive lipid bilayers while in the latter, the motion through a channel is actually examined. The major results are the retention time and the diffusion coefficient of the aforementioned substances as well as how the membrane structure is affected by the presence of that molecules.

135

**Kunio Ishida**, Toshiba Corporation, Corporate Research and Development Center, Japan

**Keiichiro Nasu**, Institite of Materials Structure Science, KEK, , Japan

**Abstract:**Recent progress of intense THz-pulse generation technology has made it possible to inject coherent phonons in a macroscopic scale, and the lattice deformation induced by such a process will cause electronic transitions in strongly coupled electron-phonon systems. Based on the analogy to the photoinduced phase transitions observed in various materials, we consider that cooperative interactions between electrons and coherent phonons will lead to the multiplication of excited electrons and/or growth of a transient phase, which is understood by bifurcation of quantum-mechanical wavepackets on adiabatic potential energy surfaces. Taking a model of localized electrons coupled with a quantized optical phonon mode, we discuss the dynamics of the cooperative phenomena by THz-pulse irradiation and, in particular, the role of the number and/or the initial distribution of phonons in the initial creation process of transient phases.

136

**Francesc Font**, University of Limerick, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ireland

**Abstract:**Freeze-drying or lyophilisation is a dehydration process widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries mainly for preservation and storage purposes. The process enables materials or slurry products, which have been previously frozen, to be dried under vacuum conditions. From a modelling point of view this is a very complex process; the mathematical models describing freeze-drying include governing equations for the heat and mass transfer of multicomponent mixtures in porous media where phase change and chemical reactions are typically involved. In this talk we will discuss some mathematical models being currently developed in our group describing different steps of the freeze-drying process.

137

**Giuliano Liuzzi**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Guido Masiello**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Carmine Serio**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Maria Grazia Blasi**, Univerity of Study of Basilicata, School of Engeneering, Italy

**Sara Venafra**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Abstract:**Geostationary platforms, such as the last generation of METEOSAT satellites, have the capability of monitor large portions of our planet with the advantage of having temporal continuity between consecutive observations. Such aspect, although advantageous in terms of the capability to follow the evolution of the geophysical parameters of interest, is very demanding from the computational point of view: an enormous amount of data must be processed in a very reduced time. In this context, we have developed a new, hyperfast radiative transfer code which operates in the framework of the physical simultaneous retrieval of surface emissivity and temperature from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) data acquired on the full disk, using a Kalman Filter (KF) approach to exploit temporal continuity. The code has been adapted from a monochromatic radiative transfer model and speeded up both reducing the number of atmospheric layers, and coarsening the optical depths look-up table used for transmittance, radiance and Jacobians pure analytical calculations. Overall, we have verified that the new code does not affect the accuracy of computed radiances in the three atmospheric window channels of SEVIRI at 12.0, 10.8 and 8.7 microns that we use in the KF algorithm. At the same time, the code is speeded up by a factor of 10 with respect to the previous version, taking a few hundredths of a second for calculating a single spectrum. The code will be exemplified through retrieval exercises of emissivity and surface temperature for a variety of surface features. In particular an application to the massive Greek forest fires in August 2007 will be shown.

138

**Mateusz Kluczek**, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Poland, Faculty of Sciences, Poland

**Anna Wawrzynczak**, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Poland, Department of Computer Science, Poland

**Renata Modzelewska**, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Poland, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Poland

**Abstract:**We derive the numerical schemes for the strong order integration of the set of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) corresponding to the non-stationary Parker transport equation (PTE). PTE is 5-dimensional (3 spatial coordinates, particles energy and time) Fokker-Planck type equation describing the non-stationary the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. We present the formulas for the numerical solution of the obtained set of SDEs driven by a Wiener process in the case of the full three-dimensional diffusion tensor. We introduce the solution applying the strong order Euler–Maruyama, Milstein and stochastic Runge–Kutta methods. We compare the convergence and stability property of the solution for the listed methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the presented numerical methods in the context of increasing the accuracy of the solution of the PTE.

139

**Michael Zeitlin**, IPME RAS, Mathematical Methods in Mechanics Group, Russian Federation

**Antonina Fedorova**, IPME RAS, Mathematical Methods in Mechanics Group, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**Sheafification together with microlocalization and the subsequent analysis of quantum dynamics on orbits with special, so-called MRA-filtrations (generating a full tower of the underlying internal hidden scales), considered in the companion paper, are the starting points of our attempt of Categorification Program for Quantum Mechanics and/or General Local Quantum Field Theory. In some sense, we may hope on the same breakthrough as in the golden era of Algebraic Topology and Algebraic Geometry in the 50s and 60s of the 20th Century, which was concluded by Grothendieck's approach and provided the universal description for a variety of long standing problems. Roughly speaking, in (Quantum) Physics such an approach provides useful, constructive and universal methods to glue the complex local data into the general picture by power machinery taking into account the topological and (algebraical) geometrical data of the underlying hidden internal structures. Definitely, the simple linear algebra of structureless Hilbert spaces cannot describe the whole rich world of quantum phenomena. Our approach introduces (Grothendieck's) Schemes instead of varieties/manifolds as generic quantum objects, naturally encoded the full zoo of phenomenological things discussed in Quantum Mechanics. The key ingredient of such an approach is the bridge between the von Neumann description of measurement together with the Gelfand ideal of the state and GNS (Gelfand-Naimark-Segal)- construction on one side of the river and locally ringed space, structure sheaf and (affine) scheme on the opposite (categorificated) side.

140

**Jakub Dokoupil**, CEITEC, Cybernetics in Material Science, Czech Republic

**Abstract:**Fundamental analysis of a multi-mode model of the atomic force microscope cantilever shows that at some points; called here singular points, the mode is vanished. Consequently, the order of the input/output behavior is reduced. The singular points can be detected comparing possible candidates on the best model order. The detection is then naturally performed by applying the Bayesian model comparison. Since the exact position of the singular points is not available a priori, an explicit model of updating the probability of tested hypotheses in time is built. More specifically, a mechanism of suppressing absolute information is suggested based on the Bayesian decision problem where the Kullback-Leibler divergence is used.

141

**guy cirier**, Université Paris VI, LSTA, France (Metropolitan)

**Abstract:**In this paper, we study an iteration f in Rd defined by a diffeomorphism polynomial bounded. So, the image of the invariant curves is relatively compact and we can use the Fourier-Bohr’s representation in the set of almost periodic function ( AP). These curves have asymptotically a parameterization with Weierstrass-Mandelbrot’s functions depending on fluctuation’s parameters. So, self-similarity and fractal dimension calculus are justified. We limit the paper to this subject, but we have applied these results to partial differential calculus.

142

**Fernando Maass**, University of Antofagasta, Physic, Chile

**Abstract:**We discuss from a physical and mathematical point of view radiating electrical circuits in forms of the Poynting theorem. We determine the nonlinear differential equation satisfied by the electrical current in the circuit. The nonlinearity of the equation is due to the contribution of the radiated energy. We study the space of solutions of the nonlinear equation. We show that the generic solution presents a “sudden death” behavior in distinction to the exponential decaying solutions of linear systems with energy losses due to the presence of resistance on the circuit. These exists an exponential decaying solution of the nonlinear differential equation, it exists for particular initial data and hence it is not a generic solution. Moreover, it is unstable with respect to small perturbations of the initial conditions.

143

**Antonina Fedorova**, IPME RAS, Mathematical Methods in Mechanics Group, Russian Federation

**Michael Zeitlin**, IPME RAS, Mathematical Methods in Mechanics Group, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**We construct some universal picture for re-consideration of base states and generic phenomena, like entanglement, in Quantum Mechanical set-up. Our main goal is related to the analytical continuation of the standard zoo of solutions/base states from trivial ones, like plane waves or gaussians to novel states, possibly realizable, which permit more realistic (re)interpretation of the base folklore of Quantum Mechanics as well as more proper analytical/numerical modeling on the whole qualitative scale from entanglement to decoherence. Definitely, there is a set of experimental features as well as theoretical prerequisites demanding the appearance of new usefulness images. We start from some simple categorification procedure allowing to consider generic states as sheaves but not functions, after that we look for internal hidden symmetries on the level of the underlying "categorified" Hilbert space of extended states. The orbits of these symmetries create the arena where we can model the novel features of our generalization of Quantum Mechanics. The analytical instruments allowing us to model both qualitative and quantitative aspects are Nonlinear Local Harmonic Analysis on the representations of orbits of hidden symmetries of underlying generalized Hilbertian spaces and variational principles which permit the algebraization of the subsequent control of the type of behaviour. It seems that reasonable extension of the zoo of possible (realizable) states can simplify the search of prototypes for realizable quantum devices as well as provide the more realistic (re)interpretation of the long-living standard "quantum folklore".

144

**Maria Grazia Blasi**, University of Study of Basilicata, School of Engeneering, Italy

**Carmine Serio**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Guido Masiello**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Sara Venafra**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Giuliano Liuzzi**, University of Basilicata, School of Engineering, Italy

**Abstract:**The novel method of Cumulative Discriminant Analysis (CDA) is applied to the cloud detection of SEVIRI satellite observations. SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) is an imager on board of the geostationary satellites launched within Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme. We want to exploit its high temporal resolution (one Earth scene every 15 minutes) in order to develop a very accurate cloud mask. The methodology is based on a series of statistics related to the cloud properties. The cumulative distribution functions of these statistics is analyzed using CDA, and a statistical scheme is developed to discriminate clear from cloudy scenes. Results have been compared with the SEVIRI cloud mask provided by EUMETSAT (European Centre for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite), selected as reference, in order to tune and validate the discrimination algorithm. We have investigated ten statistics: the brightness temperature from the eight SEVIRI infrared channels (from 3.9 µm to 13.4 µm) and two brightness temperature differences at different infrared wavelengths. We trained the statistics on a selected region, the Basilicata area located in the south of Italy, and in different time periods, the first decade of each month of 2012, in order to take into account the seasonal variability. Moreover we developed the study considering land and sea surface and distinguishing between daytime or nighttime, in order to consider both the daily variability and the dependence from the surface type. After that we carried out the validation of the scheme using SEVIRI observations acquired in the second decade of each month in 2012. The results show a very good agreement with the reference cloud mask.

145

**Florin Spineanu**, National Institute of Laser Plasma and radiation Physics, Plasma and Fusion, Romania

**Abstract:**Experimental studies have revealed the formation of structures in a transversal plane of a high power (self-guided) laser beam. The structures consist of filaments generated by the transversal modulation competing with the interaction with the inhomogeneous atmospheric refractive index. The pattern of filamentation is similar to a lattice cluster as in a 2D percolation process and appears to be associated to a phase transition. We provide evidence that there is a correlation between this filamentation and the "labyrinth" instability in reaction-diffusion systems. Besides the similarity of the spatial organization in the two cases, we show that the two differential equations that describe the dynamical processes lead to effects that can be mutually mapped. For the laser beam at high power the Non-linear Schrodinger Equation in a regime of strong self-focusing and ionization of the air is solved by robust solitons. For the labyrinth instability a model of activator-inhibitor is solved. A simple, discrete, model of 2D coupled cubic lattice maps clearly exhibits the same tendency of organizing the space in an evolving filament pattern. We discuss the common ground and the possible use of this analytical connection and suggest that the same effect of unstable interface dynamics and gradient flow occurs in these processes.

146

**Eduard Lerner**, Kazan Federal State University, Data Analysis and Operation Reseach, Russian Federation

**Dmitry Voloskov**, Kazan Federal State University, Physics department, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**Let us consider some set of points on the Cartesian plane. Each point is a part of one of few curves describing the dependency between abscissas and ordinates. In our case these are dependencies between the rock occurrence depth and the oil saturation described by Skelt-Harrison equation. In this work a problem of distributing these points into clusters corresponding to different curves is being investigated. First stage of clustering involves determining the least number of curves demanded to describe all the points and finding points definitely lying on specific curve. These points are used to obtain parameters of the original dependencies described by Skelt-Harrison equation. The final clustering can be naturally performed using restored curves. Conventional clustering methods cannot be applied due to problem specifics. Another issue with conventional methods is computational complexity, when applied to large amount of data. Sometimes sampling can help to deal with this problem, however in specific case it may also provide a data set, which cannot be clustered. For first stage of clustering an original method based on presenting data points as elements of partial ordered sets with coordinate order is proposed. Thus to solve clustering problem one needs to find all the points which are parts of maximum length chains and to distribute them into corresponding antichains. One can propose obvious algorithm to solve the problem in quadratic time, based on Mirsky’s theorem. In this work algorithm of O(n log(n)) complexity is proposed. The algorithm is based on the fact that Dushnik–Miller dimension of the partially ordered set is equal to 2 and can be applied to a wide class of dependencies.

147

**Roger Khayat**, University of Western Ontario, Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Canada

**Abstract:**When the geometrical gap is of the same order of magnitude as the mean free path of the fluid, the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations become inapplicable. Conditions of validity of non-Fourier effects are reviewed and examined for the convection of a thin fluid layer. In this case, the fluid possesses a relaxation time, reflecting the delay in the response of the heat flux and the temperature gradient. The constitutive equation for heat flux is frame invariant, of the upper-convected type. It is found that a fluid in microgeometry can exhibit oscillatory convection, not predicted for Fourier convection in large gap.

148

**Douglas Rodrigues**, University of Sao Paulo, ICMC, Brazil

**Kalinka Regina Branco**, University of São Paulo, Departament of Computer System, Brazil

**Abstract:**Due to the unmanned aerial vehicles versatility, the remarkable and growing use of these aircrafts nowadays has driven not only the expectations of that market values but also the amount of research in several related areas. So these systems require continuous evolution and adaptation. Because the usage of SOA can provide and support the integration between mission and aircraft, we propose and use the Knowledge Based Framework for Dynamically Changing Applications (KBF) in this kind of aircraft. Moreover, using KBF and the Mission-Oriented Sensors Array (MOSA) to decouple the mission from the aircraft control systems, the development of new applications for these vehicles can be benefited. Then, the Smart Sensor Protocol (SSP) allows the connection between MOSA and UAVs with KBF. The results show that it is possible to successfully implement the SSP on a modest hardware, making its implementation feasible in real scenarios. These results support the feasibility of implementing an interface mechanism for coupling of intelligent mission processors in civilian and military UAVs, contributing to the proliferation of these aircrafts.

149

**Petr Kartsev**, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Physics of the Solid State and Nanosystems, Russian Federation

**Abstract:**We study the state of the bulk superconductor under effect of the external magnetic moment placed near to the surface. To find the order parameter and magnetic vector potential distributions, we solve the Ginzburg-Landau equations using the pseudoviscosity method for the corresponding time-dependent GL (TDGL) equations. The computational complexity of this problem is caused mostly by the memory access sparseness and large volume of the grid due to the three-dimensional geometry. We overcome it by choosing nonuniform grid and GPGPU calculation. Main applications of this work include development of novel spintronic devices and high-Tc superconducting (HTSC) materials with improved transport characteristics.

150

**Yulia Maslennikova**, Kazan Federal University, Radiophysics, Russian Federation

**Vladimir Bochkarev**, Kazan Federal University, , Russia

**Abstract:**This paper is about a numerical approach to a problem of dating of literary works based on an author's idiolect analysis. We used literary works with specified date of writing from the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive. The number of dated works was over 20,000, which were used for drawing up of 2-gramms frequency dictionary for each text. The proposed method of dating of literary works is based on comparison of syntactic and stylistic parameters of a text with the same parameters of widely used lexicons of different years. We drew up 2-gramms frequency dictionaries for the period from 1700 to 2010 using Google books Ngramm database. Distribution functions parameters of different frequency dictionaries were compared using various relative entropy metrics (like Kullback–Leibler divergence). Classification was carried out using artificial neural networks. Before the training of the neural network, the entire database was divided into a training and test datasets. The first dataset was used during the training of the neural network, the second dataset - for testing. The results of testing showed good accuracy of dating of literary works. It is offered to use the proposed approach to to establish the date of earlier undated publications or verify existing dates of publications, for example, the works of Molière and Corneille.

151

**Tayssir Gahef**, Photovoltaic and semiconductor materials laboratory, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, , Tunisia

**Yassine Bouazzi**, Photovoltaic and semiconductor materials laboratory, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, , Tunisia

**Abir Mouldi**, Photovoltaic and semiconductor materials laboratory, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, , Tunisia

**Mounir kanzari**, IPEITunis-Montfleury-Tunis University, LPMS-ENITunis-EL Manar University, Tunisia

**Abstract:**Photonic crystal structures have attracted great interest in research area and industry field. Photonic crystals are periodic systems that consist in general of separate high dielectric and low dielectric regions. The periodicity or spacing determines the relevant light frequencies. In this paper we describe theoretical analysis by extracting the transmission spectra in the spectral range 0.3-3 µm of deformed one dimensional photonic crystal hybrid Bragg /Fibonacci quarter wave structure by using a transfer matrix method. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation degree. The study configuration is H(LH)7/(FQPS)7. The Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure (FQPS) is generated by the rule Sl+1=Sl.Sl−1. The initial generations S1 and S2 are taken as S1 = H and S2 = L where H and L are two elementary layers with refractive indices nL = 1.45 and nH taken to be varied from 2.34 to 3.7. We show that the whole structure H(LH)7/(FQPS)7 for the third Fibonacci generation has an interesting application as an omidirectional mirror covering the three optical telecommunications wavelengths 0.85 ; 1.3 and 1.55 µm. All results were compared to the periodic Bragg structure which has the same number of layers.

152

**Marina Ludszuweit**, Helmut-Schmidt-University, University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Germany

**Abstract:**Most of the scales for measuring systems are based on incremental and absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using several incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. We use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, so we can store more complex information than by simple binary patterns. For positioning, we use the magnetic field. Every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of measured values. We compare different patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning and discuss how stability and robustness of our measuring method can be described mathematically. We show how they are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

153

**Dimitris Glotsos**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Spiros Kostopoulos**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Stella Lalissidou**, -, , Greece

**Konstantinos Sidiropoulos**, European Bioinformatics Institute, , United Kingdom

**Pantelis Asvestas**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Christos Konstandinou**, University of Patras, Medical Physics, Greece

**George Xenogiannopoulos**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Eirini Konstantina Nikolatou**, University of Patras, , Greece

**Konstantinos Perakis**, UBITECH Ltd., Athens, , Greece

**Thanassis Bouras**, UBITECH Ltd., Athens, , Greece

**Dionisis Cavouras**, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Greece

**Abstract:**The purpose of this study was to design a decision support system for assisting the diagnosis of melanoma in dermatoscopy images. Clinical material comprised images of 44 dysplastic (clark’s nevi) and 44 malignant melanoma lesions, obtained from the dermatology database Dermnet. Initially, images were processed for hair removal and background correction using the Dull Razor algorithm. Processed images were segmented to isolate moles from surrounding background, using a combination of level sets and an automated thresholding approach. Morphological (area, size, shape) and textural features (first and second order) were calculated from each one of the segmented moles. Extracted features were fed to a pattern recognition system assembled with the Probabilistic Neural Network Classifier, which was trained to distinguish between benign and malignant cases, using the exhaustive search and the leave one out method. The system was designed on the GPU card (GeForce 580GTX) using CUDA programming framework and C++ programming language. Results showed that the designed system discriminated benign from malignant moles with accuracy higher than 90%, employing morphological and textural features. The proposed system could be used for analyzing moles depicted on smart phone images. This could assist towards early detection of melanoma cases, if suspicious moles were to be captured on smartphone by patients and be transferred to the physician together with an assessment of the mole’s nature.

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**Osswa Soltani**, Photovoltaic and semiconductor materials laboratory, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, , Tunisia

**Tayssir Gahef**, Photovoltaic and semiconductor materials laboratory, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, , Tunisia

**Yassine Bouazzi**, Photovoltaic and semiconductor materials laboratory, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, , Tunisia

**Mounir kanzari**, IPEITunis-Montfleury-Tunis University, LPMS-ENITunis-EL Manar University, Tunisia

**Abstract:**In this work, a new type of optical device using photonic band gap materials has been proposed. Indeed, a combination of periodic (PMS) and Paper Folding quasi-periodic one-dimensional photonic multilayer systems (QPMS) were used. SiO2(L) and TiO2(H) were chosen as two elementary layers with refractive indexes nL=1,45 and nH=2,30 respectively. Hence, the study structure is [(PMS)^J][(QPMS)^P][(PMS)^J], which forms an effective Fabry–Perot filter (FPF), where J and P are respectively the repetition number of periodic (PMS) and quasi-periodic (QPMS) stacks. The effect of these two parameters for producing an improved polychromatic filter with high ﬁnesse coefficient (F) and quality factor (Q) is presented in details. We use the so-called Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) to numerically investigate the optical properties in the visible range of these hybrid photonic structures. We show that the number and position of resonator peaks are dependent on the QPMS repetition number P and the iteration order of the QPMS generating sequence.

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**Rémi Léandre**, Université de Franche-Comté, Laboratoire de Mathématiques, France

**Abstract:**There are much more semi-groups than semi-groups which are represented by stochastic processes. On the other hand, there are a lot of formulas in stochastic analysis which are natural. The theory of pseudodifferential operators allow to understand a lot of partial differential equations, including parabolic equations. On the other hand we have imported in the theory of non-markovian semi-groups a lot of tools of stochastic analysis. Stochastic analysis formulas are valid for the whole process. Their interpretation for non-markovian semi-groups work only for the semi-group.

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**Harold Zandvliet**, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology & University of Twente, Applied Physics, Netherlands

**Abstract:**We have investigated the growth of Pt on Ge(110) using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy [1]. The deposition of several monolayers of Pt on Ge(110) followed by annealing at 1100 K results in the formation of three-dimensional eutectic GePt nanocrystals. Upon cooling down these eutectic GePt nanocrystals phase separate into pure Ge2Pt and Ge phases. The Ge segregrates towards the surface and forms a germanene layer. The germanene honeycomb lattice is composed of two hexagonal sub-lattices that are displaced vertically by 0.2 Å. The nearest-neighbor distance of the atoms in the honeycomb lattice is 2.5±0.1 Å, i.e. very close to the predicted nearest-neighbor distance in germanene. The differential conductivity (dI/dV) versus energy data reveals a V-shaped dependence with a non-zero minimum that is located just above the Fermi level.

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**Hafida CHEMOURI**, preparing school, chemistry, Algeria

**Abstract:**The Diels–Alder (DA) reaction is a powerful tool in organic synthesis and in the chemical industry. They allow, as private individuals, the formation (by bimolecular or intramolecular reaction) of a cycle with six atoms in a regioselective manner, while authorizing the presence of many functional groups. The lactonic cycle corresponds to a structural part is very frequently met in the natural products, in particular in sesquiterpenes which have for some of them, a multiple biological activity. In this work we studied, the Diels-Alder reaction involved a lactone derivative as a diene and a dienophile activated by a sulfoxyde groups both experimentally and theoretically. This type of sulfoxyde presents high stereo- and regioselectivity. our experimental finding schows that, the application of the reaction of Diels-Alder between a lactonic diene (standard B) and a dienophile (standard (A)) sufficiently reactive gives the product (C). In order to explain this experimental finding, theoretical investigation of the mechanism of the regio and stereoselectivity of this DA reaction has been carried out. The calculations have been performed in gas phase, in water solvent. The reaction mechanism corresponding to the formation of major isomers is elucidated by the analysis of the relevant stationary points of the potential energy surface and intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. The obtained results put in evidence the importance of hydrogen bonding formed between the solvent molecules and the dienophile fragment in the acceleration of this DA reaction. The calculations are carried out with the Gaussian 09 suite of programs using the B3PW91 exchange-correlation functionals together with the 6–31G (d, p) basis set and the obtained results are in good agreement with experimental outcomes.

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**ABDELLI IMANE**, University Abou-Bakr Belkaid, Faculty of Science- Department of Chemistry- Laboratory of Natural Substances and Bioactive (LASNABIO), Algeria

**Ghalem Said**, University Abou-Bakr Belkaid, Faculty of Science- Department of Chemistry- Laboratory of Natural Substances and Bioactive (LASNABIO), Algeria

**Ismail Daoud**, University Abou-Bakr Belkaid, Faculty of Science- Department of Chemistry- Laboratory of Natural Substances and Bioactive (LASNABIO), Algeria

**Meriem Merad**, University Abou-Bakr Belkaid, Faculty of Science- Department of Chemistry- Laboratory of Natural Substances and Bioactive (LASNABIO), Algeria

**Mohammad Amjad-Kamal**, King Abdulaziz University, King Fahd Medical Research Center, Saudi Arabia

**Abstract:**The senile insanities are defined like the regression of mental faculties of the old subject. The Alzheimer's disease [1] in fact part, its fundamental characteristic is the deterioration of cognition, in particular the dysmnesy. A major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the appearance in the brain of senile plaques that are primarily composed of aggregated forms of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) that derive from amyloid precursor protein (APP). Posiphen (1) tartrate is an experimental AD drug that reduces Aβ levels without toxicity and it lacks acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity [2]. The deterioration of the system of transmission of the nerve impulse via acetylcholine plays a central role in the cognitive decline. It corresponds to a reduction amongst specific receivers nicotinic of the neuro-transmitter acetylcholine. The degeneration of the cholinergic system evolves to the death of the neurons. Three therapeutic approaches were employed in an attempt at improvement of the nicotinic neurotransmission: increase in the acetylcholine synthesis, the activation of the receivers nicotinic and the inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase [3-4], enzyme responsible for the degradation of the neuro-transmitter (I). The current therapeutic choice is directed towards the inhibitors of the acetylcholinesterase, from where the objective of this work which consists in studying the interaction posiphen - acetylcholinesterase by molecular modeling methods.

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**Shalom Shlomo**, Texas A&M University, Cyclotron Institute, United States

**Mason Anders**, Texas A&M University, Cyclotron Institute, United States

**Igal Talmi**, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Elementary Particle, Israel

**Abstract:**We present a novel method, using the single particle Schrodinger equation, to determine the central potential directly from the single particle matter density and its first and second derivatives. As an example, we consider the experimental data for the charge density difference between the isotones 206Pb – 205Tl, deduced by analysis of elastic electron scattering measurements and corresponds to the shell model 3s1/2 proton orbit, and determine the corresponding single particle potential (mean-field). We also present results of least-square fits to parametrized single particle potentials. The 3s1/2 wave functions of the determined potentials reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. The fair agreement with fitted potentials may be an indication that effects of short range correlations on charge distributions due to shell model wave functions are not significant. More accurate experimental data, with uncertainty smaller by a factor of two or more, may answer the question how well can the data be reproduced by a calculated 3s1/2 wave function.

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**Richard Wigmans**, Texas Tech University, Physics, United States

**Abstract:**The Universe contains several billion neutrinos for each nucleon. In this talk, we follow the history of these relic neutrinos as the Universe expanded. At present, their typical velocity is a few hundred km/s and, therefore, their spectra are affected by gravitational forces. This may have led to a phenomenon that could explain two of today’s great mysteries: The large-scale structure of the Universe and the increasing rate at which it expands.

161

**Yuan-Fang Chou**, National Taiwan University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Taiwan

**Abstract:**Many canals in the human body are liquid-filled thin wall flexible tubes. In general the P-wave and S-wave velocities of tube material are much slower than the sound velocity of the liquid. It is interested to study the dynamic deformation of the wall caused by pressure fluctuation of liquid. In the low frequency range, the liquid pressure is essentially axial symmetric. Therefore, axial symmetric wave propagation modes are investigated. The calculated spectrum shows there are two modes with zero frequency limit. Phase velocities of these two modes are much smaller than the sound velocity of the liquid. They are also slower than the P-wave velocity of the tube material. At very low wave number, radial displacements of both liquid particles and tube are very small compared to their axial counter parts. As the frequency goes higher, boundary waves can be observed. The energy are mainly propagating in the neighborhood of liquid-solid interface.

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